Paragraph 2: The necessary space is there, however, in many forms. The commonest spaces are those among the particles—sand grains and tiny pebbles—of loose, unconsolidated sand and gravel. Beds of this material, out of sight beneath the soil, are common. They are found wherever fast rivers carrying loads of coarse sediment once flowed. For example, as the great ice sheets that covered North America during the last ice age steadily melted away, huge volumes of water flowed from them. The water was always laden with pebbles, gravel, and sand, known as glacial outwash, that was deposited as the flow slowed down.
4. According to paragraph 2, where is groundwater usually found?
○Inside pieces of sand and gravel
○On top of beds of rock
○In fast rivers that are flowing beneath the soil
○In spaces between pieces of sediment
答案：In spaces between pieces of sediment
Paragraph 6: Thus a proportion of the total volume of any sediment, loose or cemented, consists of empty space. Most crystalline rocks are much more solid; a common exception is basalt, a form of solidified volcanic lava, which is sometimes full of tiny bubbles that make it very porous.
Paragraph 7: The proportion of empty space in a rock is known as its porosity. But note that porosity is not the same as permeability, which measures the ease with which water can flow through a material; this depends on the sizes of the individual cavities and the crevices linking them.
10. According to paragraphs 6 and 7, why is basalt unlike most crystalline forms of rock?
○It is unusually solid.
○It often has high porosity.
○It has a low proportion of empty space.
○It is highly permeable.
答案：It often has high porosity.
Paragraph 1: In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw. The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual. The process perceived by these anthropologists may be summarized briefly. During the early stages of its development, a society becomes aware of forces that appear to influence or control its food supply and well-being. Having little understanding of natural causes, it attributes both desirable and undesirable occurrences to supernatural or magical forces, and it searches for means to win the favor of these forces. Perceiving an apparent connection between certain actions performed by the group and the result it desires, the group repeats, refines and formalizes those actions into fixed ceremonies, or rituals.
3. According to paragraph 1, theories of the origins of theater
○are mainly hypothetical
○are well supported by factual evidence
○have rarely been agreed upon by anthropologists
○were expressed in the early stages of theater’s development
答案：are mainly hypothetical
4. According to paragraph 1, why did some societies develop and repeat ceremonial actions?
○To establish a positive connection between the members of the society
○To help society members better understand the forces controlling their food supply
○To distinguish their beliefs from those of other societies
○To increase the society’s prosperity
答案：To increase the society’s prosperity