托福口语TPO25task4题目 Reading Part:
Technological change occurs very rapidly in modern society – sometimes more rapidly than many people are prepared for. As a result, when new technology emerges, people may struggle for a time to adapt to it. This period of transition, when people aread justing to technological change, is known as cultural lag. At first, people are not accustomed to the new technology and may not understand it; they may therefore have a negative attitude toward it. Over time, however, their attitudes change, and they successfully incorporate the new technology into their daily lives.
托福口语TPO25task4题目 Listening Part:
Now listen to part of a lecture from a sociology class.
(male professor) Now, the invention of the telephone was revolutionary. It was a much easier and faster way of communicating than anything else available at the time. However, when the telephone first became widely available, towards the end of the century, only businesses used telephones because businesses realized how the telephone could benefit them, how it could help them be more productive.
But, a lot of people in the general public didn’t think the phone should be used for personal communication. Some people didn't like to listen to someone’s voice without being able to see them. Also, a lot of people thought that it was rude to call someone on the telephone instead of visit them in person. They missed the sense of personal connection they got from meeting someone.
However, as we all know, people gradually changed their minds about the telephone. It took about 30 years but eventually most homes came to have telephones and everyone came to depend on them. Talking to someone you couldn't see began to seem more normal. Friends began to call each other just to chat, just for fun. And after everyone agreed on certain rules of politeness, such as not calling someone late at night, no one considered it rude anymore to make personal phone calls.
Using the example of the telephone, explain the concept of cultural lag.
Cultural lag is a period of transition, when people get used to a technological change. The professor gives an example of the telephone. At the end of the nineteenth century, when telephone became widely available, only businesses used it. But the majority of the public didn’t value its use for personal communication, because, for example, some of them didn’t like to communicate without face-to-face, others considered it rude to call someone without visiting him or her in person. However, this attitude towards telephone changed over the 30 years thereafter. Talking to someone on the phone is no longer rude or abnormal. For example, friends like to call each other just for a chat, and the rules of politeness have also changed, like no one would consider the personal call impolite unless it is made late at night.