在托福写作中,作文的具体结构,其实对于最终的分数,也有一定的影响。所以在实际的备考中,大家对于作文结构内容,也要进行深入的备考和了解,清楚高分作文的写作结构。所以下面小编为大家整理了详细的内容,供大家参考!

  对于托福综合写作结构,ETS并没有给出详细的官方建议,只是在ETS公开的综合写作评分标准中,给出了5分(即满分)作文的定义如下:

  A response at this level successfully selects the important information from the lecture and coherently and accurately presents this information in relation to the relevant information presented in the reading. The response is well organized, and occasional language errors that are present do not result in inaccurate or imprecise presentation of content or connections。

  可以看出,ETS并没有规定一篇综合写作应该使用某种固定的结构模式,而只是从信息点的准确提炼,信息组织的条理性和语言的准确性这几个角度定义了一篇满分作文。然而实践中,这样的指导性建议太为笼统。学生还是期望教师能够给出一种易于理解的,安全有效的且操作性强的结构,在考试时依照这个结构构建文章的主体,并以此为基础填充细节,从而快速高效地完成作文。

  经过一段时间的教学,总结出两种适合新托福综合写作的结构安排,为了形象理解,称为“点对点”型和“面对面”型的结构,本文就将对这两种结构进行分析和比较。

  一、“点对点”的结构

  “点对点”的结构指的是把综合写作中的阅读材料和听力材料的每一个对应点都单独提炼出来用一个段落加以阐述。这种结构的优点是可以把阅读文章和听力材料的对应关系更细致地进行说明,使文章层次感强,同时反映出考生提炼信息和对比信息的能力更高。

  二、“面对面”的结构

  “点对点”的结构指是最理想的结构安排模式,但有时候考生并不能准确地寻找到阅读和听力材料之间的对应点。这有可能是因为阅读和听力材料之间的对应点本身就不是很明显,或者由于考生自身的能力问题,没有完全听懂或看懂,则要写成“点对点”的结构安排模式,难度会比较大。遇到这种情况,建议考生可以尝试使用“面对面”的结构安排模式。它与“点对点”的结构安排模式的区别在于,“面对面”作文的结构并不是逐条阐述对应点,而是在总得阐明听力和阅读文章之间的关系后,分别总结听力材料或阅读材料的要点,从“面”上阐述听力和阅读材料之间的联系。

  可以看出,“点对点”和“面对面”的结构有各自的特点,但总得来说“点对点”的结构在“对比型”的新托福综合写作中要更适用一些,因为它能把矛盾点逐一呈现,更细致地体现了听力和阅读材料之间的关系。但掌握“面对面”的结构也很有必要,因为它可以适用一些听力和阅读材料之间的关系是一致、延伸或解释型的考题。此外,在考生无法寻找到所有的对应点时,用“面对面”的结构也算是一种补救措施。

  附:新托福综合写作sample answer 两篇,针对的是同一个考题,第一篇用的是“点对点”结构,第二篇用的是“面对面”的结构。

  Sample answer 1

  Urban sprawl is defined as the growth of cities in an unplanned manner, spreading outward rather than upward. Although urban sprawl brings some positive influence to our lives such as new homes and businesses, better schools, less noise and crime, etc., many people, especially environmental campaigners, see it as harmful to human life and the nature, as it robs people of nature, wiping out parks and farmland, and also brings traffic congestion to roads linking cities and suburbs。

  The New Urbanism movement is designed to address urban sprawl, and communities such as Celebration in Florida, which is constructed applying New Urbanism principals, have proved very effective in solving this problem. The first principle of New Urbanism is to provide effective transportation system and environmental protection. To achieve this, the town of Celebration has a large area of greenbelt dedicated to wildlife preservation. It also has buildings that are environmentally friendly and energy-efficient. New Urbanism’s second principle is to provide housing and jobs that are close together. This is reflected in Celebration’s office and apartment buildings which are all densely constructed in a small area to avoid sprawling. Finally, New Urbanism requires neighborhoods to have both single and multi-family residences, and this is exactly what can be seen in the town of Celebration, where residents live close together and find it easy to socialize。

  Urban sprawl is low-density, outward growth and mostly single-family residences. Its negative effects are robbing us of our nature and having us meeting traffic jams between cities and suburbs, while its positive effects are providing home construction, new business and better schools, making less noise and causing less crime。

  Sample Answer 2

  New urbanism has emerged to solve the problem of urban sprawl. Regions have to create transportation systems and environmental protection; Cities need to offer housing and jobs that are close together; Neighborhoods should have single- and multi-family housing where residence can walk to stores, public transportation and parks。

  Take the community of Celebration for example. It meets the goal of social and civic interaction by setting up a central market street district and housing including single- and multi-family residences. It also meets the goal of environment preservation with its good environmentally-friendly town design, and with high-rise offices and apartment buildings which help reduce the population density。

  New urbanism like celebration will bring new changes to urban sprawl。

  以上就是关于“托福写作结构内容的解析”的内容,希望通过上述内容的学习,让大家更好地备考考试,小编在这里预祝大家在考试中有更好的发挥,拿到高分成绩,如果大家在备考中有什么疑问,也可以咨询我们的在线老师哟~~~


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