Relationship between reading and lecture
The lecturer talks about research conducted by a firm that used the group to handle their work. He says that the theory stated in the passage was very different and somewhat inaccurate when compared to what happened in reality.
First Point of Contrast
First, some members got free rides. That is, some did not work hard but got recognition for the success nonetheless. This also indicates that people who work hard were not given recognition they should have gotten. In other words, were not given the opportunity to “shine”. This directly contradicts what the passage indicates.
Second Point of Contrast
Second, groups were slow in progress. The passage says that groups are more responsive than individuals because of the number of people involved and aggregated resources. However, the speaker talks about how the firm found that groups were slower than individuals in decision making. Groups needed time for meetings, which are necessary procedures in decision making. This is another place where experience contradicted theory.
Third Point of Contrast
Third, influential people might emerge and lead the group towards glory If the influent people are going in the right direction there would be no problem. But in cases where they go in the wrong direction, there is nobody that has influence to counter the decision made. In other words, the group might turn dictatorship, with the influential party as the leader, and might become less in its thinking. They might become one-sided, and thus fail to succeed.
Relationship between reading and lecture The lecturer talks about the natural process of crystallization and how the speed of cooling can influence such process, which is proved by Bowen’s crystallization experiment explained in the reading passage.
Points in the lecture
Natural crystallization happens when magma, which is extremely hot in its molten form deep in the earth, gradually cools off when it moves towards the surface of the earth. During the cooling process, the energy from heat is lost, and the atoms which compose the magma begin to move more slowly, forming into an orderly pattern, which turns the magma into a solid crystal structure. However, if the cooling process takes place too rapidly, then there is not enough time for the atoms to be arranged into such an orderly pattern. Therefore, crystallization cannot take place. Instead, a brittle, glass-like material will form.
Points in the Reading
Norman Bowen’s experiment in the 1920s proved this theory. By collecting and melting elements in rocks, Norman created artificial magma in his laboratory. He first cooled the magma slowly, as in the natural crystallization process, and got mineral crystals. But then he suddenly replaced this normal cooling with rapid freezing, and found frozen glass materials surrounding the solid crystal structure.