The reading and listening discuss about domestication of acorns and oaks. The reading points out that acorns and oaks can be domesticated. Whereas, the professor totally refutes the three points presented in the passage.
Firstly, the professor rebuts the reading’s first point that acorns, which have a long growing period, are easy to farm. He points out that it takes a long time for the acorns to ripe and fruit. Besides, early human beings immigrate frequently, so they have insufficient patience to wait until the oaks finally fruit.
According to the reading material, acorns are conventional food sources, which are unlikely to be spoiled. The professor mentions that while acorns will not be spoiled easily, the preparation is cumbersome, for chemical can be removed only by boiling.
At last, reading material point out that just as almonds whose unpleasant taste can be eliminated by cultivation and election for generations, so do acorns. However, the professor explains that it’s not proper to make a comparison between acorns and almonds. Almonds only possess one gene to decide their taste, while acorns have several genes accounting for their taste. Thus, dealing with acorns’ taste is a really complicated procedure, which is impossible for the early people.
The professor refutes the three explanation raised the reading of the usage of the shafts in the pyramid.
First, the professor does not believe the idea mentioned in the reading that shafts are used as the ventilation for workers to breathe fresh air. She pointed out that though the upper shafts stick out to and can reach air, the lower ones can not and they just stop at the wall. Since the construction of the shafts must serve the same function, so the ventilation theory is not plausible.
Second, the professor contradicts that the position of shafts has religious meaning. The linkage between gods and stars believed by the Ancient Egyptians was raised later than the year when the pyramid was built.
Third, the professor admits that the Ancient Egyptians did believe the king’s spirit can travel to the afterlife, but the traveling passageway is not necessarily tangible. Many other pyramids used symbolic images on the wall to represent the passageway. They believed the king’s soul could pass through the wall without any using of opening.
The reading and listening discuss about options to solve Cheatgrass problem. The reading points out three methods to control Cheatgrass. Whereas, the professor totally refutes the three points presented in the passage.
Firstly, the professor rebuts the reading’s first method of encouraging grazers such as cattle to eat Cheatgrass. The professor claims that Grazers prefer to eat native plants instead of Cheatgrass. This method will result in an unfortunate phenomenon that native plants might be damaged, especially those precious.
Secondly, the professor contradicts reading’s second method of using controlled fire to eliminate Cheatgrass. The professor mentions that fire cannot burn the whole Cheatgrass completely, but only the part above the soil surface. The hardy seeds of Cheatgrass can germinate easily.
At last, the passage points out the third method of using fungi to restrict Cheatgrass. However, the professor explains that Cheatgrass and fungi have lived together for thousands of years in Europe and Asia. And some Cheatgrass has been resistant toward fungi. The fungi just work on injured Cheatgrass.