The reading passage suggests that three pieces of evidence provide support that a portrait recently commissioned for sale by a member of Jane Austen’s family is of Jane Austen herself when she was a teenager. However, the lecturer rejects such evidence and argues that the painting could not be a portrait of Jane Austen.
First, the lecturer argues that the portrait was approved for publication by the Austen family 70 years after Jane Austen’s death, suggesting that members of her extended family might have published the portrait without having actually seen her in person. Therefore. the fact that the portrait had been endorsed by her family members does not necessarily prove that it is a portrait of Jane Austen.
Second, the lecturer argues that the resemblance between the portrait and an authentic sketch of the adult Jane Austen could be explained by the hypothesis that the portrait is of a relative of Jane Austen when the relative was a teenager.
Finally, the lecturer argues that despite the style of the painting, which links it to the exact period when Jane Austen was a teenager, the stamp on the back of the canvas suggests that the portrait was painted at least 27 years after Jane Austen’s birth, indicating that the portrait was of someone else who was much older than the teenage Jane Austen.
The lecturer points out several problems with the use of hydrogen-based fuel-cell engines in support of her claim that substituting them for internal-combustion engines is technologically unfeasible, environmentally unfriendly, and economically unviable.
First, the lecturer states that it is impractical to replace internal-combustion engines with fuel-cell engines because using the latter requires hydrogen in a pure liquid form, which is technologically challenging to both obtain and store. However, the reading argues that because hydrogen can be extracted from many resources including water, fuel cell engines powered by this infinite source of energy are an extremely attractive alternative.
Second, the lecturer refutes the claim in the reading that hydrogen cells are environmentally friendly. She argues that although engines that use hydrogen cells produce less pollution, the manufacturing of hydrogen cells generates large amounts of harmful by-products due to the burning of fossil fuels in the purification process.
Third, although the reading suggests that hydrogen-based engines are more fuel-efficient and thus economically competitive than internal-combustion engines, the professor argues that such an advantage is undermined by the fact that fuel-cell engines are extremely expensive to manufacture because they require the addition of platinum, a very rare and expensive material.