托福听力考试的复习中,对于背景知识大家要做好积累,毕竟听力考试中也经常会出现一些难度比较大的内容,如果大家能够很好的储备这些背景知识,那么有助于我们在考试中更好的理解原文内容。下面小编为大家整理了详细的内容,供大家参考!

  与英国的现行教育体制相似,美国的教育体制可分为三个主要阶段:初等教育、中等教育和高等教育。在接受初等教育之前,学生可以受到学前教育(主要形式是保育学校——nurseryschool与幼儿园——kindergarten)。

  初等教育的主要教育机构是小学(elementary or primary school)。儿童五六岁入小学学习。美国的小学有四年、六年制和八年制等几种。从不同学制的小学毕业出来的学生进入不同学制的中学(四年制小学毕业生事先须进入中间中学学习四年,再进入中学)接受中等教育。

  中等教育是在中学里完成的。美国的中学有四年制与六年制两种。四年制中学主要有普通中学(high school),职业技术中学(technical school)和一些专门中学(special school,如海事中学、自动化中学等)。六年制中学又有两种。一种是将初中(junior high school)与高中(senior high school)独立分开的中学,两者在课程设置、课表安排与行政管理等方面都享有独立的自主权;另一种是六年一贯制中学,将初、高中合为一体,在教学与行政等方面实行统一管理。在美国,公立中学不许开设宗教课程,所以出现了一些私立的教会中学( 实为教会所有),专门培养教会神职人员。

  高等教育主要在高等学校完成。高校分大学(university)与学院(college)两种。大学一般是综合性的,可包括若干个学院(如医学院、法学院等)。大学为各州设立、管理。学院也可分为两类:由州或大城市设立管理的四年制本科学院(包括文学院、独立专业学院——如理工、医、法专业学院)和由小城市或县设立管理的两年制学院(相当于中国的专科学院或称大专)。前者可提供本科学历(可授予学士学位——Bachelors deGREe),后者只提供专科学历(主要是专门职业培训)。设有研究生院的大学可授予硕士学位(Masters degree)和博士学位(Doctors degree)等更高的学位。在美国要拿到某专业的学士学位,须学完该专业规定的课程及学分(每门课程的学分不同),学分总数达到规定的要求后,学生可获得学士学位。拿到学士学位的本科生,再通过一至两年的攻读,达到要求者可获硕士学位。博士学位则要求研究人员完成有较大难度的、规定的研究工作,并提交学术论文,方可获得。在美国,文科的最高学位是哲学博士(Doctor of Philosophy—Ph. D. )。

  天文学

  In ancient times, many people believed the earth was a flat disc. Well over 2,000 years ago; the ancient Greek philosophers were able to put forward two good arguments proving that it was not. Direct observations of heavenly bodies were the basis of both these arguments. First, the Greeks knew that during eclipses of the moon the earth was between the sun and the moon, and they saw that during these eclipses, the earth's shadow on the moon was always round, they realized that this could be true only if the earth was spherical, It the earth was a flat disc, then its shadow during eclipses would not be a prefect circle; it would be stretched out into a long ellipse. The second argument was based on what the Greeks saw during their travels. They noticed that the North Star, or Polaris, appeared lower in the sky when they traveled south, in the more northerly regions, the North Star appeared to them to be much higher in the sky. By the way, it was also from this difference in the apparent position of the North Star that the Greeks first calculated the approximate distance around the circumference of the earth, a figure recorded in ancient documents says 400.000 stadium, that's the plural of the world stadium. Today, it's not known exactly what length one stadium represents, but let's say it was about 200 meters, the length of many athletic stadiums. This would make the Greek's estimate about twice the figure accepted today, a very good estimate for those writing so long before even the first telescope was invented.

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