What point does the professor make when he mentions XXX?
According to the professor, what have the researchers agreed on?
What does the professor say about XXX?
对话或者讲座中的举例一般都是细节题喜欢考察的点。它的提示词要么是for example, for instance, like, in this case这类的连接词，要么是具体的事例的名词。
What example does the professor give of a meme’s longevity?
l A story has been changing since it first appeared in the 1930s
l A person remembers a story for many years
l A gene is passed on through many generations without changing
l A song quickly becomes popular all over the world
First, longevity. A replicator must exist long enough to be able to get copied, and transfer its information. Clearly, the longer a replicator survives, the better its chances of getting its message copied and passed on. So longevity is a key characteristic of a replicator. If you take the alligator story, it can exist for a long time in individual memory, let’s say, my memory. I can tell you the story now or ten years from now, the same with the twinkle, twinkle song. So these memes have longevity because they are memorable for one reason or another.
在听力中经常会出现一些专有名词，有些专有名词一带而过，有些专有名词会在后面给出解释，如果我们听到带有解释的专有名词，就需要提起注意，因为它可能是一个考点。它的提示词有：it refers to，that is，that means，This is to say，in other words，in another words等。
What started the runway effect that led to the Sahara area of north Africa becoming a desert
l the prevailing winds became stronger
l the seasonal rains moved to a different area
l the vegetation started to die off in large areas
l the soil lost its ability to retain rainwater
What the Sahara experienced was um…a sort of“runaway drying effect”. As I said the monsoon migrated itself, so there was less rain in the Sahara. The land started to get drier, which in turn caused huge decrease in the amount of vegetation, because vegetation doesn’t grow as well in dry soil, right? And then, less vegetation means the soil can’t hold water as well, the soil loses its ability to retain water when it does rain. So then you have less moisture to help clouds form, nothing to evaporate for cloud formation. And then the cycle continues, less rain, drier soil, less vegetation, fewer clouds, less rain etc. etc..
教授说完“runaway drying effect”之后，并没有转移话题，而是接着介绍了这个effect的过程到底是什么样的。如果我们能听到“runaway drying effect”之后的解释，那么这道题也可以迎刃而解。
在听力中，因为考虑到学生的能力，所以句子跟句子之间的逻辑关系没有阅读中那么复杂。因果关系是其中最好表述的一种，所以在听力中也是很常见的。它也是考点之一。前因后果：therefore，consequently，as a consequence，result in，lead to。前果后因：result from，originate from，arise out of。
According to the professor, what led scientists to characterize the Nightcap Oak as primitive
l it has no evolutionary connection to other trees growing in Australia today
l it has an inefficient reproductive system
l its flower are located at the bases of the leaves
l it is similar to some ancient fossils
Now another interesting thing about the Nightcap Oak is that it represents a very old type kind of tree that grew a hundred million years ago. Um, we found fossils that old that bear remarkable resemblance to the tree. So, it’s a primitive tree. A living fossil you might say.
我们可以看出，fossils that old that bear remarkable resemblance to the treeà it’s a primitive tree。本题给出结果，对原因题型提问。所以D选项正确。
What is one way the professor mention that can help with art restoration?
l By re-creating the pigments and binding agents used by artists of earlier eras
l By removing pigments and binding agents that dissolve paintings over time
l By creating protective coatings of paint that do not damage original paintings
l By developing ways to safely remove paint added by previous restorers
Then if we want to undo some bad restoration attempts, we can determine what kind of process we can use to remove them to dissolve the paint and uncover the original.
According to the professor, what were two ways that the situation of women artists had changed by then end of the nineteenth century in Paris? (Click on 2 answers.)
l Women and men took art classes together
l Women artists played a greater role in the Salon exhibitions
l More schools were established by women artists
l Fewer women artists were traveling to Paris
Before the late 19 century, if the women who want to become an artist have to take private lessons or learn from family members. They have more limited options than men did. But around 1870s, some artists in Paris began to offer classes for female students. These classes were for women only. And by the end of the 19 century, it became much more common for woman and man to study together in the same classes.
By the last two decades of 19 century, one fifth of the paintings in the salon were by woman, much higher than in the past.
What does the professor compare to a housefly laying many eggs?
l A child learning many different ideas from her parents
l Alligators reproducing in New York sewers
l Different people remembering different versions of a story
l A person singing the“Twinkle, twinkle”song many times
Next, fecundity. Fecundity is the ability to reproduce in large numbers. For example, the common housefly reproduces by laying several thousand eggs, so each fly gene gets copied thousands of times. Memes, well, they can be reproduced in large numbers as well. How many times have you sung the‘twinkle, twinkle song’to someone? Each time you replicated the song, and maybe passed it along to someone who did not know it yet, a small child maybe.