There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The one most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual.
The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world, even the seasonal changes, as unpredictable, and they (5) sought through various means, to control these unknown and feared powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama. (10) Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used. Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances, and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the "acting area" and the "auditorium." In addition, there were performers, (15) and since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. Wearing masks and costumes, they often impersonated other people, animals, or supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect-success in hunt or battle, the coming rain, the revival of the Sun-as an actor might. Eventually such dramatic representations were separated from religious (20)activities.
Another theory traces the theater's origin from the human interest in storytelling.
According to this view, tales (about the hunt, war, or other feats) are gradually elaborated at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person. A closely (25) related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movements and sounds.
31. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The origins of theater
(B) The role of ritual in modern dance
(C) The importance of storytelling
(D) The variety of early religious activities
32. The word "they" in line 4 refers to
(A) seasonal changes
(B) natural forces
(D) human beings
33. What aspect of drama does the author discuss in
the first paragraph?
(A) The reason drama is often unpredictable
(B) The seasons in which dramas were performed
(C) The connection between myths and dramatic
(D) The importance of costumes in early drama
34. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as
a common element of theater and ritual?
35. The word "considerable" in line 15 is closest in
36. The word "enactment" in line 15 is closest in
37. The word "they" in line 16 refers to
38. According to the passage, what is the main
difference between ritual and drama?
(A) Ritual uses music whereas drama does not.
(B) Ritual is shorter than drama.
(C) Ritual requires fewer performers than drama.
(D) Ritual has a religious purpose and drama does
39. The passage supports which of the following
(A) No one really knows how the theater began.
(B) Myths are no longer represented dramatically.
(C) Storytelling is an important part of dance.
(D) Dramatic activities require the use of costumes.
40. Where in the passage does the author discuss the
separation of the stage and the audience?
(A) Lines 8-9
(B) Lines 12-14
(C) Lines 19-20
(D) Lines 22-24