转述中的指称:The speaker the lecturer the professor The passage the writer the author
The author: discuss introduce argue conclude suggest recommend propose appeal
1.point out say tell
2.disagree disapprove refute rebut reject object to oppose counter
3.doubt question challenge
4.cite mention quote refer to
5.suggest put forward illustrate show explain
1.This directly contradicts what the passage indicates.
2.This is entirely oppose to the writer’s expectation.
3.This is where the speaker disagrees with the writer.
4.This was another part where experience contradicted theory.
5.not as the passage puts it, ….
6.Unlike described in the passage
7.contrary to the passage, …/quite the contrary, …/quite the opposite,…/just the opposite, …/ by contraries, …/on the contrary, …/to the contrary, …
8.while/whereas the writer states…., the lecturer opposes the claim
9.actually/in fact/in deed
10.The fact is …/the point is…/it turns out that…
1.reason cause basis ground motive motivation
3.evidence date fact proof basis foundation
5.definition description clarification
6.assumption premise hypothesis guess
7.conclusion belidf idea opinion judgment view notion argument theory
8.issue matter topic problem subject concern
10.statement point detail
11.advice appeal proposal plan scheme recommendation
12.benefit advantage improvement
3.alternative explanation theory
6.objection refutation charge