Paragraph 7: The Cognitive approach. Cognitive psychologists assert that our behavior is influenced by our values, by the ways in which we interpret our situations and by choice. For example, people who believe that aggression is necessary and justified-as during wartime-are likely to act aggressively, whereas people who believe that a particular war or act of aggression is unjust, or who think that aggression is never justified, are less likely to behave aggressively.
Paragraph 8: One cognitive theory suggests that aggravating and painful events trigger unpleasant feelings. These feelings, in turn, can lead to aggressive action, but not automatically. Cognitive factors intervene. People decide whether they will act aggressively or not on the basis of factors such as their experiences with aggression and their interpretation of other people's motives. Supporting evidence comes from research showing that aggressive people often distort other people's motives. For example, they assume that other people mean them harm when they do not.
9. According to the cognitive approach described in paragraphs 7 and 8, all of the following may influence the decision whether to act aggressively EXCEPT a person's
○Previous experiences with aggression
○Instinct to avoid aggression
○Beliefs about other people's intentions
这道题目的定位范围是两个自然段，四个选项中有三个会influence the decision whether to act aggressively，有一个选项不会“影响一个人决定是否要表现的具有侵略性”，我们要选择这个选项。首先，在第七自然段的第二句“Cognitive psychologists assert that our behavior is influenced by our values, by the ways in which we interpret our situations and by choice.”中就提到moral values，对应A 选项。其次，在第八自然段中，第四句“People decide whether they will act aggressively or not on the basis of factors such as their experiences with aggression and their interpretation of other people's motives.”中提到两个选项，一个是“their experiences with aggression”对应B选项，另外一个是“interpretation of other people's motives”对应D选项。只有C选项的instinct没有提到，这道题目选择C选项。