In the lecture, the professor refutes the three solutions raised in the reading passage to reduce the impact of wind turbines on the bats population, for he thinks those are all infeasible.
Firstly, the professor opposes the reading’s idea that the wind turbines should be built in the areas far away from the migratory routes of the bats. He suggests that the migratory routes of bats are exactly the places where wind turbines should be built, for if they are built in the remote areas such as flat plain, the wind speed will decline, which is very disadvantageous to the power generation function of wind turbines.
Secondly, the reading claims that turning off the wind turbines in the night is one of the solutions, for bats are nocturnal. The professor disapproves, because though the bats are not active in the daytime, they will choose sleep on tall structures, and the tops of the turbines are such places. When the wind turbines function in the day, the bats will get harmed.
Finally, in the reading passage, it suggests that radars can be used to repel the bats, for the bats hate radar waves. The professor disagrees with this, for if bats meet the electromagnetic waves emitted by radars, those waves will prominently influence the reproductive system of the bats.
The reading argues that palm oil production has positive effects and is supposed to be expanded. On the contrary, the listening believes that there are serious negative effects and the expansion of palm oil production is not a good idea.
First, the passage states that palm tree farming helps preserve forests. However, the lecture denies the idea by saying that the increasing demand for palm trees because of its widely use in food and cosmetics products forces farmers to clear more forests to grow more palm trees. It results in increasing deforestation around the world.
In addition, the professor says that though it is true that using biodiesel made from palm oil can produce fewer emissions. Growing palm trees, however, generates a lot more carbon emissions, which contradicts the idea proposed in the reading. In order to gain the land for palm tree farming, farmers clear the land by burning plants including peat which stores huge amounts of carbon. This burning process will send out large quantities of carbon emissions.
Finally, the reading holds that producing palm oil helps poor small-scale farmers. The professor points out that they will not control the farms too long. In the long run, the large-scale companies will obtain lands and thus control most profits. Consequently, small-scale farmers will not get much return. (218words)
The writer and the speaker have a debate on the owner of the negative. The writer points out that negatives belong to Adam, which is opposed by the following lecture.
First, the writer claims that the pine tree in this photo is as same as another tree appearing in the photo taken by Adam. while the speaker views this issue from an opposite angle. According to him/her, The pine tree in national park is very popular. Many people would take photos there, so it may not be taken by Adam.
Secondly, the writer states that the negative is in an envelope，which has his wife’s handwriting. However, the speaker casts doubt on this opinion by saying that There are some spelling mistakes. His wife is really familiar with that place, so she would not make such errors.
Last, the writer argues that the negative is damaged by fire. It is reported that the office of Adam once got fire. By contrast, in accordance with the speaker, this claim does not hold water. It is because the negatives contain the chemical substance which is highly likely to catch fire.