1. In this set of materials, the reading passage describes….. (填入阅读短文的标题)and the listening passage is a lecture by a professor on the same topic.
2. According to the reading passage….
3. In the listening passage, the professor goes on to demonstrate it by with two examples. The first one is …. And the second one is….
Often, students or employees will be asked to draw a conclusion from a huge amount of data. That’s when a sample is introduced. When a sample is accurate, it can represent the whole group. But when it is wrong, sampling error would occur. In statistics, sampling error or estimation error is caused by observing a single sample instead of the whole population. Sampling error can be found by subtracting the value of a parameter from the value of a statistic. Generally, there are two methods of reducing sampling error: increasing the sample size, and ensuring that the sample can adequately represent the entire population.
The passage talks about a statistics term “sampling error”, which is caused by obversing a single sample instead of the whole population. If the sample is inaccurate, sampling error might appear. The lecture cited one experiment to illustrate the term. A researcher intended to conduct an experiment to calculate the amount of fish of different sizes in one pond. The researcher scooped out one net of fish to be his statistic sample. To his surprise, there were only big fish and middle sized fish in his net. Finally, he figured out that small fish has already escaped from his big-mesh fishing net.(the example best illustrates the conception " ")
Some scientists believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. Bandura’s learning theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as obversational learning(or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors. Observational learning takes place when an individual acquires a habit or skill through witnessing the performance of another person. Such learning often, but not always, involves imitation of the obverved activities.
Observatinal learning means that people can acquire new things through watching other’s performances. The lecture cited one experiment to illustrate the term. In 1961, Bandura conducted his famous Bobo ball experiment to support this theory. Twenty four children were divided into two playrooms where two adult models were seated. The aggressive adult model was attacking the ball while the other played the tinker toy all the time. Then both groups were put into a room of toys and those exposed to the aggressive model tend to act in more aggressive ways. This proves Bandura’s theory that children may be influenced by adults’ behavior through observational learning.
Fixed Action Patterns of Animal Behavior
A fixed action pattern refers to a sequence of innate behaviors that is essentially unchangeable and usually conducted to completion once started. It is triggered by a sensory stimulus called a sign stimulus. Because the animal responds to the sign stimulus, rather than the environment as a whole, it may be “tricked” by signals that are out of their usual context. Even human beings have some behaviors in fixed action patterns, such as sneezes. Understanding some fixed patterns of animal behavior can help us to look deeper into the behavior of animals.
A fixed action pattern refers to animal’s innate behaviors that are usually unchangeable and often conducted to completion once started. The professor discusses two examples to illustrate how animals behave in a fixed pattern. Male crested puffers tend to attack fish with red marks, and they will ignore those invaders without red marks on their bodies. Another case is the female goose. It is inclined to move its head around to protect its duck-lings after laying the eggs. Interestingly, it kept doing this even after the eggs are moved out of the nest.