Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:
All scientific discoveries should be shared to all scientists around the world; Governments and businesses should not keep any scientific discoveries secret.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Argument 1 (for)
Scientific discoveries should be the property of the world, available to all scientists. Governments and businesses should not keep discoveries secret because it impedes scientific progress and inhibits the development of technologies that can improve the lives of others.
First, sharing discoveries saves time and energy because scientists do not have to repeat the same experiments. Scientists can make faster progress and use fewer resources because they can learn what has already been done and expand on the existing research rather than duplicating the same results. If governments and businesses are secretive, then many companies will have to do the same groundwork before they can move on to the next step. For example, by sharing the patterns for making the Mars Curiosity rover, NASA has enabled other scientists to improve on the design and make rovers that will endure even more rigorous conditions than those encountered by Curiosity.
Second, sharing discoveries allows scientists to confirm data and establish whether theories are on target. One theory may have multiple variations that need tested before it can be established as true or not. For example, an experimental drug must undergo rigorous testing before it is approved. If several scientists in different areas are pursuing the same line of research, they can compare results obtained under different conditions. The example drug might prove effective only in certain parameters based on things such as age or weight. This difference might not show up in one of the trials but might be found in another. Combining the research would give scientists a better idea of the limitations of their product.
Finally, sharing discoveries could potentially save thousands of lives and solve some of the difficult health and environmental problems that plague the world today. By looking at the progress of others, a scientist might find the key needed to create a new vaccine, develop an inexpensive building material, create an alternate energy source, or other such invention that could make the world a better place to live in. In isolation, a scientist may not have the information he or she needs, but referring to the work of others, can tackle large problems such as hunger, disease, and climate change.
Sharing scientific discoveries is essential because it facilitates new discoveries. Scientists can save time and resources, confirm results, and help others if they are willing to share rather than keep their data secret.
do the same groundwork 做同样的基础工作
more rigorous conditions 更为严格、严苛的条件下
to confirm data 核实数据，确认数据
be on target 十分准确
pursue the same line of research 做同样的研究
to create a new vaccine 创造新的疫苗
an alternate energy source 可替代能源
In isolation 在独立的情况下，单独而言
tackle large problem 解决重大问题
Argument 2 (against)
There are many cases when it is acceptable to keep research private. It is not necessary for all scientists to reveal their data because such a policy could limit new research and cause harm to others.
Scientific research takes a significant amount of time and resources, and someone must pay. Therefore, the people doing the research have a right to keep their discoveries secret, so they can patent the results and earn enough profits to cover the expenses of their investment. If scientists must share what they learn, others can use the data to make inventions or products. Companies will be less likely to invest in original research because it is cheaper to use data done by someone else, and the overall amount of new research will decrease. There is a financial burden that is easiest repaid when the research can be patented or sold rather than revealed at no cost.
Another reason against enforcing a policy of revealing all scientific research is that some research might be incomplete. Others may misinterpret the results because not enough tests have been performed. For example, one test may show that a drug cures a certain disease. However, if no additional studies have been done regarding side effects and people just assume that the drug is effective, then they could become ill using it. Therefore, it is better to wait until enough data has been gathered to ensure that the results are accurate. Incomplete data may cause problems if revealed to an audience that misunderstands what it represents.
A final reason that some scientific research should remain secret is that some discoveries could cause serious harm if they are in the wrong hands. The scientists who create dangerous technologies should be responsible for making sure that they are properly used. For example, certain chemical agents and explosives can be misused as devices for terrorism. It is better for the companies and governments holding the knowledge of how to make such things to restrict access to that knowledge so that it does not end up in the hands of terrorists.
There are many situations when scientific research should not be shared with the world. Scientists need to be able to pay for their research, so should be allowed to patent the results. In addition, scientific discoveries should be protected from being misunderstood because they are incomplete or misused because they are dangerous.
take a significant amount of time and resources 需要大量的时间和资源
patent the results 为结果申请专利
to invest in original research 投资原始研究
at no cost 不花钱
side effects 副作用
in the wrong hands 在坏人手里，落入坏人手里
be misused as devices for terrorism 被误用为恐怖主义的工具
to restrict access to that knowledge 限制获取这些知识