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  Animal Behavior

  By the early 1900s the field of animal behavior had split into two major branches. One branch, ethology, developed primarily in Europe. To ethologists, what is striking about animal behaviors in that they are fixed and seemingly unchangeable? For example, kittens and puppies play in characteristic but different ways. Present a kitten with a ball of yarn and invariably it draws back its head and bats the yarn with claws extended. Kittens are generally silent as they play, and their tails twitch. Puppies, by contrast, are most likely to pounce flat-footed on a ball of yarn. They bit and bark and their tails wag. Ethologists came to believe that ultimately even the most complex animal behaviors could be broken down into a series of unchangeable stimulus/response reactions. They became convinced that the details of these patterns were as distinctive of a particular group of animals as were anatomical characteristics. For well over half a century, their search for and description of innate patterns of animal behavior continued.

  Meanwhile, mainly in North America, the study of animal behavior took a different tack, developing into comparative behavior. Of interest to comparative behaviorists was where a particular came from, that is, its evolutionary history, how the nervous system controlled it, and the extent to which it could be modified. In 1894, C. Lloyd Morgan, an early comparative behaviorist, insisted that animal behavior be explained as simply as possible without reference to emotions or motivations since these could not be observed or measured. In Morgan’s research, animals were put in simple situations, presented with an easily described stimulus, and their resultant behavior described.

  The extension to animals of behaviorism—the idea that the study of behavior should be restricted to only those elements that can be directly observed—was an important development in comparative behavior. Studies of stimulus/response and the importance of simple rewards to enforce and modify animal behavior were stressed. Not surprisingly, comparative behaviorists worked most comfortably in the laboratory. Comparative behaviorists stressed the idea that animal behavior could be modified, while their ethologist colleagues thought it was innate and unchangeable. Inevitably, the two approaches led to major disagreements.

  To early ethologists, the major driving force in behavior was instinct, behaviors that are inherited and unchangeable. ■ Moths move towards light because they inherit the mechanism to so respond to light. ■ Although dogs have more options available to them, they bark at strangers for much the same reasons. ■ The comparative behaviorists disagreed: learning and rewards are more important factors than instinct in animal behavior. ■ Geese are not born with the ability to retrieve lost eggs when they roll out the nest, they learn to do so. If their behavior seems sometimes silly to humans because it fails to take new conditions into account, that is because the animal’s ability to learn is limited. There were too many examples of behaviors modified by experience for comparative behaviorists to put their faith in instincts.

  5 The arguments came to a peak in the 1950s and became known as the nature or nurture controversy.

  Consider how differently an ethologist and a comparative behaviorist would interpret the begging behavior of a hatchling bird. The first time a hatchling bird is approached by its parent, it begs for food. All baby birds of a particular species beg in exactly the same way. Obviously, said the ethologists, they inherited the ability and the tendency to beg. Baby birds did not have to learn the behavior, they were born with it—a clear example of innate, unchanging behavior. Not so, countered the comparative behaviorists. Parent birds teach their young to beg by stuffing food in their open mouths. Later experiments showed that before hatching, birds make and respond to noises of their nest mates and adults. Is it not possible that young birds could learn to beg prenatally?

  It was hard for ethologists to accept that innate behaviors could be modified by learning. It was equally difficult for comparative behaviorists to accept that genetic factors could dominate learning experiences. The controversy raged for over a decade. Eventually, however, the distinctions between the two fields narrowed. The current view is that both natural endowments and environmental factors work together to shape behavior.

  1. The word “ultimately” in the passage is closest in the meaning to

  A. noticeably

  B. importantly

  C. some of the time

  D. in the end

  2. According to paragraph 1, what do ethologists think is the most notable characteristic of animal behavior?

  A. Animal responses in most situations are predictable and do not vary

  B. In similar situations, different animal species often behave in similar ways.

  C. Even in ordinary situations, animal behavior can be unusually complex.

  D. Animal behavior may sometimes include stimulus/response reactions.

  3. According to paragraph 2, C. Lloyd Morgan agreed with which of the following statements about animal behavior?

  A. Only those elements of animal behavior that could be observed and measured should be used to explain it.

  B. Any study of animal behavior should include an explanation of emotions and motivations.

  C. Emotions and motivations can be measured indirectly using simple experimental situations.

  D. Experimental situations are less than ideal if researchers want to develop a comprehensive explanation of animal behavior.

  4. According to paragraph 2, comparative behaviorists were interested in finding answers to all of the following questions EXCEPT

  A. How has animal behavior changed over time?

  B. How can emotions causing a specific behavior in one animal species help explain behavior in other animal species?

  C. To what degree can animal behavior be changed?

  D. How does the nervous system regulate animal behavior?

  5. Paragraph 3 suggests that comparative behaviorists’ conclusions concerning animal behavior were based

  A. on the observation that rewards do not affect inherited animal behavior

  B. on the application of stress to modify animal behavior

  C. most often on the results of laboratory experiments

  D. more on stimulus/response reactions than on simple rewards

  6. The word “retrieve” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. find

  B. recover

  C. remember

  D. hatch

  7. According to paragraph 4, why did comparative behaviorists believe that their view of instinct in animal behavior was correct?

  A. They had observed that animals can respond to the same stimulus in different ways.

  B. They had demonstrated that animals could use learned behaviors in new conditions.

  C. They had acquired sufficient evidence that instincts vary from one animal to another.

  D. They had shown that the behavior of many different animals had been changed by learning.

  8. The word “Obviously” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. Originally

  B. Clearly

  C. Similarly

  D. Consequently

  9. The word “countered” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. learned

  B. argued back

  C. assumed

  D. predicted

  10. In paragraph 5, why does the author discuss the begging behavior of a hatchling bird?

  A. To support the view that instinct explains animal behavior better than learning does

  B. To demonstrate that ethologists are correct about the limited ability of animals to learn

  C. To contrast an ethologist’s explanation of a particular animal behavior with that of a comparative behaviorist

  D. To question whether the discussion about the roles of nature and nurture was a valid one

  11. The word “current” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. ideal

  B. basic

  C. alternative

  D. present

  12. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?

  This view is supported by the behavior of insects as well as animals.

  Where would the sentence best fit?

  13. Directions: Select from the seven phrases below the phrases that correctly characterize ethologists and the phrases that correctly characterize comparative behaviorists. Drag each phrase you select into the phrases will NOT be used. This question is worth 3 points.

  Ethologists

  ●

  ●

  Comparative Behaviorists

  ●

  ●

  ●

  Answer Choices

  A. Worked primarily in North America

  B. Argued that animal behavior is passed on from one generation to another without change over time

  C. Maintained from the start that behaviors that are inherited could be influenced by learning

  D. Believed that stimulus-response reactions serve to distinguish one animal from another just as their physical features do

  E. Studied stimulus-response reactions and emphasized the importance of rewards for enforcing and changing behavior

  F. Conducted more experiments with birds than with any other species

  G. Studied primarily how physical characteristics often determine behavior.

  参考答案

  Q1D Q2A Q3A Q4C Q5C Q6AC Q7B Q8B Q9B Q10B

  Q11A Q12D Q13B Q14 BCE

  文章概要

  本文主要介绍了植物的风力传粉。

  第一段:相隔较近、数量较多的温带植物适用于风力传粉,相隔较远、单株单

  株分布的植物不适用于风力传粉;

  第二段:风力传粉的植物不需要鲜艳的花朵和香气;

  第三段:落叶植物一般选择春天传粉,以避免叶子影响传粉;

  第四段:植物会通过控制花粉离开植物的时机来提高传粉效率;

  第五段:小颗粒的花粉飞得远,但不容易黏到柱头上。

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