一个典型的明喻,常常包括三部分,即本体、喻体和比喻词。在Mary is like flower这个明喻中,Mary为本体,flower为喻体,比喻词是like。

  但值得注意的是,在明喻里,本体和喻体必须是不同事物,或即使是同类事物也应具有不同性质。Mary is like flower是明喻,但 Mary is like her mother就不是明喻了,因为Mary和her mother是同类。


  Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you are going to get.

  Living without an aim is like sailing without a compass.


  The whole of my life has passed like a razor--in hot water or a scrape.


  注意,这个明喻句其实含有一个pun(双关语),in hot water和in a scrape都含有“困境重重”的意思。


  His hands are gnarled and knotted as peach branches.


  Men fear death, as children fear to going the dark.



  As the lion is king of beasts, so is the eagle king of birds.


  As cold waters to a thirsty soul, so is good news from a far country.


  Just as Darwin discovered the law of development of organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of development of human history.


  很多as作为比喻词的明喻,已经成为英文里的成语。其结构为 as + 形容词+as+名词(注意,第一个as可以省略),如:

  as firm as rock(坚如磐石)

  As sober as a judge(十分清醒)

  As mute as a fish(噤若寒蝉)

  As strong as a horse(壮实如牛)

  As light as feather(轻若鸿毛)

  As close as an oyster(守口如瓶)


  A pen is to a writer what a gun to a soldier.


  Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.


  Praise is to children what the sun is to flower.


  What blood vessel is to a man’s body,that railway is to transportation.



  Kings and bears often worry their keepers.


  Love and cough can not be hid.


  A word and a stone let go cannot be recalled.


  5.Metaphor (暗喻)

  暗喻和明喻的区别就是,暗喻没有比喻词,Mary is like flower是明喻,但Mary is flower就是个暗喻了。



  (1) 最最常见的就是A is B的结构了,其中A为本体,B为喻体,如:

  The world is a stage, and we are just players.


  Happiness is a perfume you cannot pour on others without getting a few drops on yourself.


  Life is a book: our birth is cover, but we have to fill the contents with our own hands.



  She has a photographic memory for detail.


  The mountainous waves swallowed up the ship.


  The volcanic fires of his nature had burnt down.



  He was so hungry that he wolfed down the large dish of food within seconds.


  Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.


  Finally the talk broke ice and an agreement was reached.


  She was walking on air when she received the job offer.



  The flower of freedom is blossoming in our nation.


  The tree of liberty has taken root in this beautiful land.


  His eyes is burning with a flame of hopes.


  The snake of traffic moved slowly.


  The wife was eager to escape from the prison of her home.




  比如,A pen is mightier than sword,这个转喻中,用pen来代替words,而用sword来代替force即武力。


  再看这一句,What is learned in the cradles is carried to the grave(幼小所学,终生不忘),在这个转喻中,用cradle代替birth,而用grave代替death,就是在摇篮里学校到的东西可以终生伴你,直到坟墓。


  I will give your my hand when you need.


  Many husbands are making a purse for themselves for cigarettes or socializing.


  She has an eye for what is beautiful.


  In love relationship, many girls let their hearts rule their heads.


  When breasts get together, gossip is unavoidable.


  Whenever he felt bad, he would hit the bottle.


  The White House is considering another tax cut.