1. 逗号使用3规则:

1). 使用逗号来分开插入从句和短语;

例如:

Gordon, who is a writer by profession, bakes an excellent cheesecake.

2).用逗号分开系列成分。如果有2个以上相同成分,则应用逗号分开;

例如:

My recipe for buttermilk biscuits contains flour, soda and buttermilk.

3).在引导性分词或介词短语后使用逗号;

例如:

After the banquet, Harold and Martha went dancing.

4).利用逗号来分开连词连接的独立从句。

例如:

Susan’s old car has been belching blue smoke from the tailpipe for two weeks, but it has not broken down yet.

2.分号使用两大规则:

1) 使用分号而不是并列连词来连接两个含义紧密的独立从句;

例如:

Whooping cranes are an endangered species; they are unlikely to survive if we continue to pollute.

2)therefore、nevertheless和moreover等词连接的独立从句可用分号隔开。

(sat)例如:

The staff meeting has been postponed until next Thursday; therefore, I will be unable to get approval for my project until then.

3.冒号使用3大规则:

1).在正式的写作中,冒号的作用仅在于表明其后是对前面所述内容的详细说明、定义、解释或过去发生事情的概述。冒号之前一般是独立从句,并且通常情况下有as follows、the following、namely或like等提示短语。

例如:

正确:Your instructions are as follows: read the passage carefully, answer the questions on the last page, and turn over your answer sheet.

2).动词和直接宾语间不要放冒号。

例如:

错误:I want: a slice of pizza and a small green salad.

正确:This is what I want: A slice of pizza and a small green salad.

3).如果前后两句话有如上所述的紧密关系,即使没有上述表示这层关系的短语,也可使用冒号,并且在这种情况下,句号也可用。

例如:

正确:We were aghast: The “charming country inn” that had been advertised in such glowing terms proved to be a leaking cabin full of mosquitoes.

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