SAT写作人物素材之哥白尼

SAT写作人物素材之哥白尼!SAT写作考试前考生可以多积累一些名人事迹，可以在考试中将匹配度极高的人物素材运用到答题中，可以起到有力论证观点的作用。下面智课网为大家整理了关于哥白尼的人物事迹，供大家积累。

Nicolas Copernicus

Polish astronomer and mathematician who, as a student, studied canon law, mathematics, and medicine at Cracow, Bologna, Rome, Padua, and Ferrara. Copernicus became interested in astronomy and published an early description of his "heliocentric" model of the solar system in Commentariolus (1512). In this model, the sun was actually not exactly the center of the solar system, but was slightly offset from the center using a device invented by Ptolemy known as the equant point. The idea that the Sun was the center of the solar system was not new (similar theories had been proposed by Aristarchus and Nicholas of Cusa), but Copernicus also worked out his system in full mathematical detail. Even though the mathematics in his description was not any simpler than Ptolemy's, it required fewer basic assumptions. By postulating only the rotation of the Earth, revolution about the sun, and tilt of Earth's rotational axis, Copernicus could explain the observed motion of the heavens. However, because Copernicus retained circular orbits, his system required the inclusion of epicycles. Unfortunately, out of fear that his ideas might get him into trouble with the church, Copernicus delayed publication of them.

In 1539, Copernicus took on Rheticus as a student and handed over his manuscript to him to write a popularization of the heliocentric theory, published as Narratio Prima in 1540. Shortly before his death, Rheticus convinced Copernicus to allow publication of his original manuscript, and De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium was published in 1543. Copernicus proposed his theory as a true description, not just a theory to save appearances. Unlike Buridan and Oresme, he did not think that any theory which saved appearances was valid, instead believing that there could only be a single true theory. When the work was published, however, Andreas Osiander added an unauthorized preface stating that the contents was merely a device to simplify calculations.

Copernicus adapted physics to the demands of astronomy, believing that the principles of Ptolemy's system were incorrect, not the math or observations. He was the first person in history to create a complete and general system, combining mathematics, physics, and cosmology. (Ptolemy, for instance, had treated each planet separately.) Copernicus's system was taught in some universities in the 1500s but had not permeated the academic world until approximately 1600. Some people, among whom John Donne and William Shakespeare were the most influential, feared Copernicus's theory, feeling that it destroyed hierarchal natural order which would in turn destroy social order and bring about chaos. Indeed, some people (such as Bruno), used Copernicus's theory to justify radical theological views.

Before Copernicus formulated his theory of the solar system, astronomy in Europe had stagnated. After the Almagest had been translated into Latin, European astronomers such as the Austrian mathematician Georg von Peurbach and the German astronomer Regiomontanus proposed no new theories, attempting instead to refine the flawed system already laid out by Ptolemy. The astronomy textbook used for teaching was still The Sphere, the same book that had been in use since the 1200s. Rather than formulating new theories, astronomers had busied themselves in "saving appearances," which consisted of trying to patch it up Ptolemy's cumbersome and inaccurate model. Copernicus, however, wiped the slate clean in a single broad stroke, and proposed a fundamentally different model in which the planets all circled the Sun in De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. While radically different from Ptolemy's model, Copernicus's heliocentric theory was hardly an original idea. Similar theories had been proposed by Aristarchus as early as the third century B. C., and Nicholas de Cusa, a German scholar, had independently made the same assertion in a book he published in 1440. We know for a fact that Copernicus was well aware of Aristarchus's priority, since his original draft of De Revolutionibus has survived and features a passage referring to Aristarchus which Copernicus crossed out so as not to compromise the originality of his theory. In his belief that his theory was an accurate description of nature rather than just a mathematical model, Copernicus was therefore not truly revolutionary.

What was a little revolutionary was that Copernicus worked out his system in full mathematical detail in De Revolutionibus. By doing this, Copernicus went a step beyond Ptolemy, de Cusa, and Aristarchus. Ptolemy had regarded his theory as simply a mathematic tool for calculation, having no physical basis. On the other side of the coin, de Cusa and Aristarchus had proposed a purely physical model, not endeavoring to mathematically investigate its consequences. Copernicus's most significant achievement was his combination of mathematics and physics, adapting physics to conform to his view of astronomical truth, with a good bit of cosmology thrown in for good measure.

This achievement alone, however, hardly qualifies as a "revolution." Copernicus offered mathematics which were every bit as entangled as Ptolemy's, and because he retained circular orbits, his system required the inelegant inclusion of epicycles and their accompanying complication. To Copernicus's credit, although his description was not any simpler than Ptolemy's, it did require fewer basic assumptions. In addition, Copernicus's theory explained some problems, such as the reason that Mercury and Venus are only observed close to the Sun (their orbits always kept them nearer the sun than Earth ) and Mars's retrograde motion (the Earth, traveling in its smaller orbit, overtakes Mars, causing Mars to appear to move change direction and move backward relative to distant "fixed" stars). However, like Ptolemy, Copernicus could still not explain variations in the brightness of Venus.

Copernicus was the first person in history to create a complete and general system, combining mathematics, physics, and cosmology. Yet, by themselves Copernicus's achievements, do not constitute a revolution. Copernicus had been motivated to this theory by Neoplatonic and Pythagorean considerations. His reasoning seems to have been predominantly motivated by aesthetics. In his view, equally spaced planets in circular orbits would represent harmony in the universe. But Copernicus had made no observations and stated no general laws. His mathematics could describe the motion of the planets, but his theory was of a very ad hoc nature.

It took the accurate observational work of Brahe, the exhaustive mathematics of Kepler, and the mathematical genius of Newton to take Copernicus's theory as a starting point, and glean from it the underlying truths and laws governing celestial mechanics. Copernicus was an important player in the development of these theories, but his work would likely have likely remained in relative obscurity without the observational work of Brahe. It would have been discarded by the wayside, until subsequent investigation brought it back to light. It is likely, in fact, that given Kepler would have independently arrived at a heliocentric theory just in the process of interpreting Brahe's data, and the scientific revolution would have been born anyway. To a large extent, then, Copernicus has achieved his prominent place in history through what amounted to a lucky, albeit shrewd, guess. It is therefore more appropriate to view Copernicus's achievements as a preliminary step towards scientific revolution, rather than a revolution in itself.

尼古拉·哥白尼1473年出生于波兰。40岁时，哥白尼提出了日心说，并经过长年的观察和计算完成他的伟大著作《天球运行论》。1533年，60岁的哥白尼在罗马做了一系列的讲演，但直到他临近古稀之年才终于决定将它出版。1543年5月24日去世的那一天才收到出版商寄来的一部他写的书。哥白尼的“日心说”沉重地打击了教会的宇宙观，这是唯物主义和唯心主义斗争的伟大胜利。哥白尼是欧洲文艺复兴时期的一位巨人。他用毕生的精力去研究天文学，为后世留下了宝贵的遗产。哥白尼遗骨于2010年5月22日在波兰弗龙堡大教堂重新下葬。

哥白尼的“日心说”沉重地打击了教会的宇宙观，这是唯物主义和唯心主义斗争的伟大胜利。因此使天文学从宗教神学的束缚下解放出来，自然科学从此获得了新生，这在近代科学的发展上具有划时代的意义。

哥白尼是欧洲文艺复兴时期的一位巨人。他用毕生的精力去研究天文学，为后世留下了宝贵的遗产。由于时代的局限，哥白尼只是把宇宙的中心从地球移到了太阳，并没有放弃宇宙中心论和宇宙有限论。在德国的开普勒总结出行星运动三定律、英国的牛顿发现万有引力定律以后，哥白尼的太阳中心说才更加的稳固。从后来的研究结果证明，宇宙空间是无限的，它没有边界，没有形状，因而也就没有中心。

恩格斯在《自然辩证法》中对哥白尼的《天球运行论》给予了高度的评价。他说：“自然科学借以宣布其独立并且好像是重演路德焚烧教谕的革命行动，便是哥白尼那本不朽著作的出版，他用这本书(虽然是胆怯地，而且可说是只在临终时)来向自然事物方面的教会权威挑战，从此自然科学便开始从神学中解放出来。”

“人的天职在于踊跃探索真理。” --哥白尼