1.Mahpiua Luta, better known for being Red Cloud, was chief of the Oglala Sioux during the 1860s.
(A) for being
(B) that he was
(C) as being
(D) to be
2.Listening to good storybooks sharpen children’s awareness and appreciation for the sounds of spoken language.
(A) sharpen children’s awareness
(B) sharpens children’s awareness of
(C) are what sharpens the awareness of children
(D) sharpens the awareness of children
(E) is to sharpen children’s awareness
3.Upon winning her third gold medal at the competition, the young athlete learned that her accomplishments had surpassed her coach’s, a former track star.
(A) her coach's
(B) her coach
(C) those of her coach
(D) those done by her coach
(E) those of her coach's
4.The advent of innovative computer and communications technology toward the end of the twentieth century ushered in a new era, not dominated by industry anymore, rather it was information.
(A) era, not dominated by industry anymore, rather it was information
(B) era, it was dominated by information over industry
(C) era, which was not dominated anymore by industry but rather information
(D) era dominated by information rather than industry
(E) era dominated not by industry, but it was information
1.The correct answer is E
Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by using an appropriate idiom, “known as,” to introduce “Red Cloud,” the more familiar name of “Mahpiua Luta.”
2.The correct answer is B
Choice (B) is correct. It avoids the subject-verb agreement error of the original by using the singular verb “sharpens” to agree with the singular subject “Listening.”
3.The correct answer is C
Choice (C) is correct. This version of the sentence correctly compares the young athlete’s accomplishments with her coach’s accomplishments, not with her coach. In addition, it uses the plural pronoun “those” to refer to the coach’s accomplishments, which allows the noun “coach” to be correctly modified by the noun phrase “a former track star.” The possessive noun “coach’s” cannot be modified by a noun phrase.
4.The correct answer is D
Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the awkwardness and wordiness of the original by using the idiomatic phrase “dominated by information rather than industry” to characterize the “new era” discussed in the sentence.