Key words: inventor

  The Wright Brothers (Wilbur and Orville)

  Aviation pioneers, inventors. Wilbur was born near Millville, Indiana, and Orville (1871--1958) was born in Dayton, Ohio. The sons of a minister of the United Brethren Church, the Wright brothers showed mechanical genius from boyhood, although neither graduated from high school.

  In 1892 they opened a bicycle sales and repair shop in Dayton and soon were making and selling their own bicycles. Reading about experiments with gliders spurred their interest in flight, and they built their first glider in 1899, a biplane kite with wings that could be twisted mechanically.

  The brothers made their first trip to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in 1900 to conduct glider experiments on the sand hills there.

  Back in Dayton they built the first wind tunnel and prepared their own tables of lift-pressures for various wing surfaces and wind speeds. They also built a powerful four-cylinder engine and an efficient propeller, and in September 1903 they returned to Kitty Hawk. Bad weather delayed the testing of this aircraft until December 17, 1903, when Orville piloted it on a flight of 12 seconds and 120 feet; Wilbur flew later in the day, staying aloft for 59 seconds to cover 852 feet.

  The brothers built two sturdier, more reliable planes over the next two years and in 1906 received a U.S. patent for a powered aircraft. Initially they sold their plane to the British and French governments, but in 1908 the U.S. War Department contracted for a Wright flying machine for the army. In 1909 they formed the American Wright Company and proceeded to manufacture their improved planes and to train pilots.

  Wilbur, a bachelor as was his brother, died of typhoid in May 1912. In 1915, Orville - who had continued to test fly all his planes - retired from the aircraft manufacturing business to pursue his own research interests. During World I he accepted a commission as a major to serve as a consultant to the army air service and he served for many years on the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  莱特兄弟是美国飞机发明家,航空先驱者。1903 年成功地进行了第一架可操纵的动力飞机的持续飞行,1905 年制造和飞行了第一架实用的飞机。

  1867 年4 月16 日,维尔伯·赖特出生于印第安纳米尔维尔。1871 年8 月19 日,奥维尔·赖特出生于美国俄亥俄代顿。主教之子。早年主要靠自学设计和制造印刷机械和自行车。维尔伯产生动力飞行的想法是受O.利林塔尔的影响。通过观察鹰在空中保持平衡的情况,1899年维尔伯认识到飞机要能飞行,必须能绕3 个轴转动即能向两侧倾斜,能升降,能向左右转弯。1899 年莱特兄弟制造第一架双翼机时安装了机械扭曲机翼,即在一侧机翼升力增加的同时,另一侧机翼升力减小,由此操纵飞机压坡度转弯或由滚转改为平飞。他们的功绩除了完成有动力的飞机飞行外,绕3 个轴操纵飞机是他们对空气动力学和飞行方面的主要贡献。

  为了实现动力飞行,他们决定先掌握滑翔飞行技术。1900 年—— 1902 年制造3 架双翼滑翔机并作了飞行。最后一架滑翔机有升降舵、方向舵和扭曲机翼。他们制造滑翔机时进行了大量理论工作和实验工作,包括风洞试验。他们还设计和制造了实现动力飞行所必需的螺旋桨和轻型发动机。

  1903 年人类历史上第一架有动力装置的飞机“飞行家”1 号制造成功,12 月17 日凌晨该机从平地起飞。第一次飞行12 秒,最后一次59 秒,飞行距离260 米。1904 年“飞行家”2 号飞行成功。

  1905 年制造的“飞行家”3 号是世界上第一架实用的飞机,能转弯、倾斜、做圆圈飞行和8 字飞行,续航时间超过半小时。1905 年10 月16 日至1908 年5 月6 日,因财政拮据,莱特兄弟未进行过一次飞行。1908 年维尔伯在法国作飞行表演,5 个月内飞行100 多次,总飞行时间超过25 小时,其中约60 次带乘客飞行,有7 次飞行时间超过1 小时,最后一次飞行时间达2 小时 20 分。

  与此同时奥维尔也在美国作轰动一时的表演飞行,并为美国陆军制造了世界上第一架军用飞机。1909 年之前,世界航空可说在莱特兄弟统治之下,他们同时在欧洲和美国制造飞机。