可汗sat阅读 Part 1 Level 4 Passage6 Science
可汗SAT阅读答案：B A D A A A A A B C A
Questions 1-11are based on the following passage.
Adapted from Nani Morgan, Michael R. Irwin, Mei Chung and Chenchen Wang, “The Effects of Mind-Body Therapies on the Immune System.” ©2014 by Nani Morgan et al.
Over the last two decades, mind-body therapies (MBTs), including Tai Chi, Qi Gong, meditation, and Yoga have received increasing awareness and attention from the scientific community seeking to understand the safety and efficacy of these widely used practices. According to the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, 19% of American adults have used at least one mind-body therapy in the past 12 months. Currentl the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine designates MBTs as a top research priority.
Previous work has shown that MBTs offer many psychological and health functioning benefits including reductions in disease symptoms, improvements inOnline coping, behavior regulation, quality of life, and wellbeing. In light of these benefits, recent investigations have sought to better understand the role of MBTs on physiological pathways such as the immune system. It has been well-established that psychological stress and depression impair anti-viral immune responses and activate innate immunity or markers of inflammation via effector pathways, such as the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In fact, behavioral interventions targeted at alleviating stress, promoting heightened states of relaxation, and encouraging moderate physical activity, have been shown to bolster anti-viral immune responses and decrease markers of inflammation, particularly among older adults or adults experiencing high levels of psychological stress.
The efficacy of such behavioral interventions in modulating the immune system suggests that MBTs may also confer immunomodulatory benefits. Tai Chi, Qi Gong, and Yoga are multi-dimensional behavioral therapies that integrate moderate physical activity, deep breathing, and meditation to promote stressreduction and relaxation, which could potentially influence the immune system. Meditation, including more integrative, mindfulness-based, stress-reduction programs, has also been shown to regulate emotional and affective responses to stress, and therefore may influence the immune system even in the absence of physical activity.
To our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive review of the best available evidence, summarizing the effects of MBTs on the immune system while focusing on two aspects of immunity that are regulated by stress response mechanisms, namely inflammation and anti-viral related immune responses… Indeed, evidence acquired from 34 randomly controlled trials (RCTs) indicates that Tai Chi, Qi Gong, meditation, and Yoga, both short- and long- term, appear to reduce markets of inflammation and influence virus-specific immune responses to vaccinations. Our findings are supported by existing literature evaluating the immunomodulatory effects of other types of behavioral interventions including exercise, stress reduction, and mood modifying approaches. For example, exercise, one of the most widely-studied behavioral interventions, has been shown to reduce chronic inflammation, enhance immunological memory in the context of vaccination, and even reduce sick days associated with the common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections.
Apparently, powerful links exist between the brain and the immune system, and psychosocial factors can directly influence health through behavior. MBTs may buffer these immune alterations through relaxation, stress reduction, improved mood, and moderate physical activity. Behavioral responses are therefore the key to activating neuroendocrine and autonomic pathways, which in turn modulate the immune system and have implications for susceptibility to a variety of diseases. Thus, behavioral interventions that alter immune responses provide potent evidence for psychological influences on immune function.
1 The main purpose of the passage is to
A) counter the claim that mind-body therapies have no effect on the immune system.
B) inform readers that mind-body therapies can influence immune responses in the body.
C) advance the argument that mind-body therapies have become an increasingly popular alternative.
D) uphold the findings of a previous study about the effect of mind-body therapies on behavior.
2 Based on the passage, behaviors can influence physical health by
A) impacting the body’s immune response
B) reinforcing the body’s reactions to physical stress
C) changing the body’s recovery time during illness.
D) increasing the body’s reception to inflammation.
3 Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) lines 1-5(“Over…practices”)
B) lines 6-8(“According…months”)
C) lines 8-10(“Currently…priority”)
D) lines 15-18(“In… system”)
4 The discussion of “multi-dimensional behavioral therapies” in paragraph 3 (lines 30-42) primarily serves to
A) introduce the claim that integrating mental and physical exercise can have a strong impact on health.
B) provide a specific example of how these kinds of therapy can influence a person’s overall health better than any others.
C) inform readers about the different kinds of therapies they can use to supplement their physical activity.
D) defend the study’s findings regarding the efficacy of mind-body therapies on bolstering the immune system.
5 In line 32, "confer" most nearly means
6 The author implies that the study of mind-body therapies is especially important because
A) there has not previously been a comprehensive study on the connection between MBTs and the immune system.
B) MBTs are a new and unexplored way of helping to regulate moods, behavior, and immune responses.
C) MBTs are becoming an increasingly effective method when combined with regular overall exercise.
D) new findings show that MBTs have a greater impact on overall health and can replace physical exercise.
7 Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) lines 43-49(“To…responses”)
B) lines 49-54(“Indeed…vaccinations”)
C) lines 54-58(“Our…approaches”)
D) lines 58-63(“For…infections”)
8 In line 74, "potent" most nearly means
9 How does the graph relate to the passage?
A) It indicates that stress hormones are only loosely linked with physical exercise.
B) It highlights findings that exercise has an impact on lowering stress in the body.
C) It supports the claim that cortisol is closely linked in the body with free fatty acids.
D) It emphasizes the disparity between pure physical exercise and mind-body therapies.
10 According to the graph, the largest decrease in cortisol occurs between
A) 15-30 minutes of exercise.
B) 45-60 minutes of exercise.
C) 60-90 minutes of exercise.
D) 90-120 minutes of exercise.
11 It can reasonably be inferred from the graph that
A) while stress hormones rise sharply at the beginning if exercise, they drop below the initial value after 120 minutes.
B) the benefits of prolonged exercise are minimal at best unless one exercises for longer than 180 minutes.
C) both cortisol and free fatty acid levels largely remain the same if exercising for a duration shorter than 60 minutes.
D) a sustained drop in cortisol is beneficial only when combined with a large increase in free fatty acid levels.
可汗SAT阅读Part 1 Level 2 Passage6 Science
可汗SAT阅读答案： A B A B C B A C A B C
This passage is excerpted from Leyra Castro and Ed Wasserman, “Crows Understand Analogies,” © Scientific American 2015.
A recent research collaboration has discovered that crows exhibit strong behavioral signs of analogical reasoning—the ability to solve puzzles like “bird is to air as fish is to what?” Analogical reasoning is considered to be the pinnacle of cognition and it only develops in humans between the ages of three and four.
Why might crows be promising animals to study? Of course, crows are reputed to be clever. Aesop’s famous fable “The Crow and the Pitcher” tells of a crow solving a challenging problem: the thirsty crow drops pebbles into a pitcher with water near the bottom, thereby raising the fluid level high enough to permit the bird to drink. Such tales are charming and provocative, but science cannot rely on them.
Recent scientific research sought to corroborate this fable. It found that crows given a similar problem dropped stones into a tube containing water, but not into a tube containing sand. Crows also chose to drop solid rather than hollow objects into the water tube. It thus seems that crows do indeed understand basic cause-effect relations.
But, what happens when crows are given problems that require more abstract thinking? Before setting our sights on analogical reasoning,we might begin with a simpler abstract task. For example, sameness and differentness are key abstract ideas, because two or more items of any kind—coins, cups, caps, or cars—can be the same as or different from one another. Because sameness and differentness can be detected visually, perhaps that may provide an elegant way to study their apprehension by nonverbal animals.
To do so, we present visual stimuli on a touchscreen monitor. We reward animals with food for contacting one button when sets contain identical items and we reward animals for contacting a second button when sets contain non-identical items. Several species of birds and mammals learn this task and also transfer their learning to new stimuli, showing that they have learned an abstract concept, which extends beyond the training items.
Devising a task to study analogical thinking in animals is the next step. Here, the gist of analogy can be captured by arranging a matching task in which the relevant logical arguments are presented in the form of visual stimuli. Using letters of the alphabet for explanatory purposes, choosing test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA,whereas choosing test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Stated logically, A:A as B:B (same=same) and C:D as E:F (different:different). Critically, no items in the sample pair; so, only the analogical relation of sameness can be used to solve the task.
Now, we have found that crows too can exhibit analogical thinking. Ed Wasserman, one of the authors of this article, and his colleagues in Moscow, Anna Smirnova, Zoya Zorina, and Tanya Obozova, first trained hooded crows on several tasks in which they had to match items that were the same as one another. The crows were presented with a tray containing three cups. The middle cup was covered by a card picturing a color, a shape, or a number of items. The other two side cups were also covered by cards—one the same as and one different from the middle card. The cup under the matching card contained food, but the cup under the nonmatching card was empty. Crows quickly learned to choose the matching card and to do so more quickly from on task to the next.
Then, the critical test was given. Each card now pictured a pair of items. The middle card would display pairs AA or CD, and the two side cards would display pair BB and pair EF. The relation between one pair of items must be appreciated and then applied to a new pair of items to generate the correct answer: the BB card and in the case of AA or the EF card int the case of CD. For instance, if the middle card displayed a circle and a cross, then the correct choice would be the side card containing a square and a triangle rather than the side card containing two squares.
Not only could the crows correctly perform this task, but they did so spontaneously, from the very first presentations,without ever being trained to do so.
It seems that initial training to match identical item enabled the crows to grasp a broadly applicable concept of sameness that could apply to the novel twoitems analogy task. Such robust and uninstructed behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a non-primate animal.
1. The main purpose of the passage is to
A) present research approaches used to determine that crows may be able to think analogically.
B) show that crows have been proven to be the smartest of all non-primate animals.
C) argue that crows need proper training in order to perform complex and advanced tasks.
D) explain that scientists’ understanding of crows likely will progress rapidly following a recent study.
2. A used in line 2, “strong” most nearly means
3. In the fourth paragraph, the phrase “sameness and differentness” primarily serves to
A) introduce a concept that is central to the experiments described later,
B) refer to the topic that led researchers to begin studying reasoning in animals.
C) reveal that expert scientists sometimes use everyday language in their reports.
D) emphasize that certain terms must be used when describing intelligent animals.
4. The discussion of animals’ ability to apply a learned skill in various testing scenarios suggests that some animals
A) grasp concepts because they are similar to things they experience in the wild.
B) are capable of understanding the shared concept that underlies different tasks.
C) cannot differentiate between “sameness” and “difference” after being trained.
D) learn a new task most quickly when they have just repeated a different task many times.
5. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) lines 28-31 (“Because...animals”)
B) lines 33-36 (“We reward...items”)
C) lines 36-40 (“Several species...items”)
D) lines 42-45 (“Here...stimuli”)
6. Based on the authors’ initial explanation of the analogical matching task, a sample pair with a triangle and a square would most correctly be
A) Two triangles.
B) A circle and a cross.
C) Two squares.
D) A square and a cross.
7. It can be reasonably inferred that a key difference between the two parts of the study done by Ed Wasserman and his colleagues is that the second part.
A) required a more complex task.
B) involved direct observation,while the first experiment was viewed on a monitor.
C) involved a new analogical relationship.
D) tested learned abilities,while the second experiment tested natural abilities.
8. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) lines 59-63 (“The crows...card”)
B) lines 63-65 (“The cup...empty”)
C) lines 68-73 (“Each...answer”)
D) lines 79-80 (“Not...spontaneously”)
9. The averaged results for sessions 1-8 as shown in the chart reveal that
A) Crow 1 was generally more successful at matching size and Crow 2 was generally more successful at matching color.
B) Crow 1 was generally more successful at matching shape and Crow 2 was generally more successful at matching size.
C) Crow 1 was generally more successful at matching shape and Crow 2 was generally more successful at matching color.
D) Crow 1 was generally more successful at matching color and Crow 2 was generally more successful at matching size.
10. Which statement can be reasonably inferred from the information in the passage and the graph?
A) Crows’ ability to match objects steadily improves as new dimensions are introduced.
B) Researchers can see evidence of learning even when an animal’s performance on a task is inconsistent during observation.
C) Crows perform differently on matching tasks when they are aware that they are being observed.
D) Researchers may influence the outcome of scientific trials with animals by varying their teaching methods.
11. The information from the chart best supports the authors’ claim that the crows
A) easily understood the relationship between two unlike objects.
B) recognized that a learned skill could be applied to a new task.
C) quickly learned to complete the matching task.
D) grasped the concept of cause-effect relationships.