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  Key words: Greek philosopher

  Socrates

  Socrates (469-399bc), Greek philosopher, profoundly affected Western philosophy through his influence on Plato. Born in Athens, the son of Sophroniscus, a sculptor, and Phaenarete, a midwife, he received the regular elementary education in literature, music, and gymnastics. Later he familiarized himself with the rhetoric and dialectics of the Sophists, the speculations of the Ionian philosophers, and the general culture of Periclean Athens. Initially, Socrates followed the craft of his father; according to a former tradition, he executed a statue group of the three Graces, which stood at the entrance to the Acropolis until the 2nd century ad.

  In the Peloponnesian War with Sparta he served as an infantryman with conspicuous bravery at the battles of Potidaea in 432-430 bc, Delium in 424 bc, and Amphipolis in 422 bc. Socrates believed in the superiority of argument over writing and therefore spent the greater part of his mature life in the marketplace and public places of Athens, engaging in dialogue and argument with anyone who would listen or who would submit to interrogation.

  Socrates was reportedly unattractive in appearance and short of stature but was also extremely hardy and self-controlled. He enjoyed life immensely and achieved social popularity because of his ready wit and a keen sense of humor that was completely devoid of satire or cynicism.

  Socrates' contribution to philosophy was essentially ethical in character. Belief in a purely objective understanding of such concepts as justice, love, and virtue, and the self-knowledge that he inculcated, were the basis of his teachings. He believed that all vice is the result of ignorance, and that no person is willingly bad; correspondingly, virtue is knowledge, and those who know the right will act rightly.

  His logic placed particular emphasis on rational argument and the quest for general definitions, as evidenced in the writings of his younger contemporary and pupil, Plato, and of Plato's pupil, Aristotle. Through the writings of these philosophers, Socrates profoundly affected the entire subsequent course of Western speculative thought.

  苏格拉底

  苏格拉底(前469 年—前399 年)是著名的古希腊哲学家。与他的学生之一是柏拉图及柏拉图的学生亚里士多德并称“希腊三贤”。

  出生于伯里克利统治的雅典黄金时期,死于雅典的败落时期。(伯罗奔尼撒战争结束后的三十人僭主集团倒台后的时期)。出身贫寒,父亲是一名雕刻师,母亲为助产士。苏格拉底是一位个性鲜明,被人褒贬不一而充满传奇色彩的历史人物。 苏格拉底是柏拉图的老师,他一生未曾著述,其言论和思想多见于柏拉图和色诺芬的著作如《苏格拉底言行回忆录》。

  苏格拉底最后因触犯了当时权贵的利益而被冠以腐蚀青年思想之名被迫饮毒堇汁而死。 他长期靠教育为业,苏格拉底的教学方式独特,常常用启发、辩论的方式来进行教育。

  苏格拉底是柏拉图哲学路线的创始者。苏格拉底重视伦理学,是古希腊第一个提出要用理性和思维去寻找普遍道德的人,他是道德哲学的创始人,他强调道德是由理性指导的,所以“美德就是知识”,认为善出于知,恶出于无知。

  在欧洲哲学史上最早提出唯心主义的目的论,认为一切都是神所创造与安排的,体现了神的智慧与目的。提出了“自知自己无知”的命题,认为只有放弃对自然界的求索(因为那时神的领域),承认自己无知的人才是聪明人。最有知识的是神,知识最终从神而来,真正的知是服从神。

  在逻辑学方面,亚里士多德认为苏格拉底提出归纳论证,从具体实事中找出确定的论点,并注意一般定义的方法,对概念做出精确的说明。苏格拉底的哲学思想主要认为是非有标准。传说苏格拉底的家庭生活不幸,其妻子是个泼妇。

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