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  一、careful的用法

  1. 后接介词 of 或 about, 表示“当心”、“留意”等。如:

  Be careful of the dog; it sometimes bites people. 当心那条狗,它有时候咬人。

  You must be careful of [about] your pronunciation. 你要注意你的发音。

  注:be careful 后一般不接介词 for。如:

  我希望你要多注意身体。

  正:I hope you’ll be more careful of[about] your health.

  误:I hope you’ll be more careful for your health.

  2. 后接介词 with(其后多接名词)或 in(其后多接动名词),表示做某事时很小心或仔细。如:

  He’s careful with [=in doing] his work. 他工作很仔细。

  Be careful with the vase; it is valuable. 这花瓶很贵,小心点。

  Be careful in dealing with such people. 和这种人打交道要小心。

  3. 后接不定式。如:

  Be careful not to drop it. 小心不要把它掉了。

  You must be careful to avoid being caught. 你必须小心,不要被抓住。

  比较:

  He’s careful to read every sentence. 他注意读(即不漏读)每一个句子。

  He’s careful in reading every sentence. 他读每个句子都很仔细。

  4. 后接从句。如:

  Be careful how you hold it. 小心拿好。

  Do be careful what you say. 说话一定要小心。

  Be careful that you don’t hurt her feelings(=Be careful

  not to hurt her feelings). 当心别伤害她的感情。

  注:后接 what 从句时,可用介词 of, about 等,但通常省略,但是若是接 that, how, when, where 等引导的从句,则一般不用介词;另外,从句谓语若指将来,通常要用一般现在时代替将来时( 见上例)。

  二、careless的用法

  1. 注意以下句型

  你把钱包放在这里真是太大意了。

  正:It was careless of you to leave your wallet here.

  正:You were careless to leave your wallet here.

  以上第一句句首的 it 为形式主语,不能改为 that。但是若以上句型后面不出现不定式,那么句首的 it 也可换为 that。如:

  他太粗心了。

  正:It was very careless of him.

  正:That’s very careless of him.

  2. 比较:

  正:He was careless to make the mistake. 他很粗心,结果出 了错。(句中的不定式为结果状语)

  正:He was so careless as to make the mistake. (同上)

  正:He was careless in typing the letter. 他打这封信时很 粗心。(句中的 in typing the letter有类似 when he was typing the letter 的意思)

  误:He was careless to type the letter. (若此句视为正句,则只能理解为:他很粗心,结果把那封信打印了出来)

  3. 表示“不在意的”、“不关心的”等,其后可接介词 about, of, with 等。如:

  He’s careless of [about] his speech. 他讲话随便。

  She is careless of [with] his health. 她不注意身体。

  He is careless with his pronunciation. 他对语音不注意。

  Don’t be so careless with your money. 你花钱不要这样随便。

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