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  Is loyalty all too often a destructive force, rather than a virtue, as the speaker contends? To answer this question it is crucial to draw a distinction between loyalty as an abstract concept and its application. Apart from its consequences, loyalty is clearly a virtue that all humans should strive to develop. Loyalty is part of a universal ethos that we commonly refer to as the golden rule: Do unto others as you would have others do unto you. However, whether loyalty in its application amounts to virtue depends on its extent and its object.

  本段译文:是否像题中人说的那样,通常情况下,忠诚是破坏性的力量而非美德?要回答这个问题,我们需要区分“忠诚”这个抽象概念与其具体应用。撇开忠诚带来的后果不谈,显然它本身是一种美德。所有人都应该努力去做到忠诚。忠诚是社会意识的一部分。通常,我们说忠诚是金科玉律:己所不欲勿施于人。但是,在实际情况下,忠诚是否能和美德划等号还取决于人们多大程度上去保持忠诚,以及对谁忠诚。

  本段必背单词:all too often常常;destructive破坏性的;virtue美德;crucial必要的;draw a distinction between A and B区分A和B;strive to努力;develop培养;universal广泛的;ethos社会思潮;refer to as称为;golden rule重要原则;amount to意味着;object对象

  First consider the ways in which loyalty, if exercised in proper measure and direction, can be a positive force. Relationships between spouses and other exclusive pairs require some degree of trust in order to endure; and loyalty is part-and-parcel of that trust. Similarly, employment relationships depend on some measure of mutual loyalty, without which job attrition would run so rampant that society’s economic productivity would virtually come to a halt. And, without some mutual loyalty between a sovereign state and its citizenry there can be no security or safety from either revolt or invasion. The world would quickly devolve into anarchy or into a despotic state ordered by brute force.

  本段译文:首先我们要考虑忠诚的方式。如果尺度和方向正确,那么忠诚就是积极力量。配偶以及其他排外性关系需要一定程度的信任才能持久。忠诚是信任的重要组成部分。同样,雇佣关系也需要一定程度的相互忠诚,否则会摩擦不断,以至经济停滞。并且,如果主权国家和人民之间没有相互忠诚那么就会有叛乱或入侵。那时安定将不复存在。世界也会迅速沦为残暴势力下的无政府或专制状态。

  本段必背单词:exercise实行;proper measure合适的尺度;spouse配偶;exclusive排他的;part-and-parcel重要的组成部分;attrition摩擦;rampant蔓延的;come to a halt停步不前;sovereign有主权的;revolt反叛;invasion入侵;devolve衰落;anarchy无政府主义;despotic暴君的;brute残暴的

  On the other hand, misguided or overextended loyalty can amount to a divisive and even destructive force. In school, undue loyalty to popular social cliques often leads to insulting and abusive language or behavior toward students outside these cliques. Undue loyalty to a spouse or other partner can lead to acquiescence in abusive treatment by that partner and abuse of oneself by continuing to be loyal despite the abuse.

  本段译文:另一方面,错误的或者过分的忠诚是有破坏性的。在学校,对于学校小团体的过分忠诚会引起对于非此类圈子同学的侮辱和谩骂。对于配偶的过度忠诚则会使人在受虐待后仍保持沉默。继续忠诚只会让自己受虐待。

  本段必背单词:misguided错误的;overextended过分的;divisive造成不和的;undue过度飞;clique小团体;insulting侮辱的;acquiescence默许;despite尽管

  Misguided loyalty can also occur between people and their institutions. Undue loyalty to college alma maters often leads to job discrimination---for example, when a job candidate with the same alma mater as that of the person making the hiring decision is chosen over a more qualified candidate from a different school. Loyalty to one’s employer can also become a destructive force, if it leads to deceptive business practices and disregard for regulations designed to protect public health and safety. By way of undue loyalty to their employers, employees sometimes harm themselves as well. Specifically, many employees fail to advance their own careers by moving on to another place of work, or type of work altogether, because of a misplaced sense of loyalty to one company. Finally, and perhaps foremost in terms of destructive potential, is misguided loyalty to one’s country or political leaders. History shows all too well that fine line between patriotism and irrational jingoism can lead to such atrocities as persecution, genocide, and war.

  本段译文:错误的忠诚也表现在人与机构的关系上。对母校的过度忠诚常常会导致工作歧视---比如,一位能力没有别人强的求职者被录用,而原因就是因为他和面试官来自同一大学。如果对雇主的过度忠诚使人做出欺诈性的商业行为或者忽视保护公共安全和健康的规则,那么这种忠诚也可能是极具破坏性的。对雇主的过度忠诚也会伤害雇员自己。具体来说,很多雇员不会换工作来推进自己的职业生涯就是因为对某个公司过于忠诚。最后,也可能是最具有破坏性的是对国家或政治领袖的忠诚。历史上太多事例表明爱国主义与侵略主义之间如果分不清楚,就会导致诸如迫害,种族灭绝和战争这类暴行。

  本段必背单词:institution机构;alma maters母校;candidate求职者;qualified合格的;deceptive business practice欺诈性的商业行为;regulation:规则;all too well:太;fine line细微差别

  Patriotism爱国主义;jingoism军国主义;atrocity暴行;persecution迫害;genocide种族灭绝

  To sum up, without loyalty there can be no basis for trust between two people, or between people and their institutions. A world devoid of loyalty would be a paranoid, if not anarchical, one. Nevertheless, loyalty must be tempered by other virtues, such as fairness, tolerance, and respect for other people and for oneself. Otherwise, I agree that it can serve to divide, damage, and even destroy.

  本段译文:总的来说,没有忠诚就没有人与人之间,人与组织之间信任的基础。一个没有忠诚的世界如果不是混乱的,那也是多疑的世界。然而正必须由公正、容忍以及对他人的尊重这样的美德来调和。否则,我同意忠诚会导致不和、破坏甚至毁灭。

  本段必背单词:devoid of缺乏;paranoid多疑的;anarchical混乱的;temper调和;divide产生分歧

  以上内容由智课小编为大家整理的关于“SAT写作范文:忠诚是有害还是有利”,希望可以帮助到大家,小编在此预祝大家在考试中取得好成绩!

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