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  巴赫(1685-1750)

  Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

  Bach was born on March 21, 1685 in Eisenach, Germany. His career is among the wonders of music. Bach wrote hundreds of compositions and is considered the greatest genius of baroque music.

  Bach was a devout Lutheran and his religious views are reflected in his works. He felt that everything people do and believe has to do with religion. Bach, and many other composers of his time, believed that baroque music helped protect people from the advance of doubt bred by Renaissance ideas of scientific, rational inquiry. Bach believed he could best serve his church, and the people around him, through his music.

  名言:There's nothing remarkable about it. All one has to do is hit the right keys at the right time and the instrument plays itself.

  Key words: musician

  巴赫的音乐,可以说是构成欧洲音乐殿堂的一根重要支柱。对于整个巴罗克时期的音乐来说,巴赫的音乐成就,可以说是架在这座殿堂上的圆顶;对于其后的欧洲音乐发展来说,虽然直到19 世纪巴赫才具有真正的影响力,但是这种影响力一旦产生,便对欧洲音乐的发展产生了深远的影响。

  在德国的图林根州“巴赫们”曾成为音乐家的代名词,这是因为巴赫一族,可以上溯到好几代人,其职业都是一种组成行会的音乐职业,世家相传,他们属于音乐艺人这样一种特殊社会阶层。在领主的宫廷中,巴赫的社会地位是仆役性质的,与厨子列在同一个名册上。他不具有自由音乐家的社会地位,其创作的作品并不能直接成为其经济收入的来源,而是归于领主所有。即使成为托马斯的宫廷乐长,他也很难维持在莱比锡的生活,死后也无遗产,不似贝多芬死后还留有股票。他的作品除了在教堂中,在当时演出也很少,死后长期默默无闻。

  J.S.巴赫是一个虔诚的宗教徒,他的音乐大多为表达对主的崇拜,表现主所创造的世界的和谐,表达的不是情感而是信仰。J.S.巴赫认为,世间万物都是上帝之创造、之恩赐,都在上帝的光辉沐浴之下,音乐所要歌颂的是这种上帝创造的和谐,和谐之中对那种上帝之光的仰望。在J.S.巴赫看来,音乐是他通向天国,与上帝对话的云梯。音乐本身就是天堂的奇迹,音乐方式,是通过隐蔽的理性的方式使人感觉上帝的存在。

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