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  cartographer N. /制图者,制地图的人/map-maker. Though not a professional cartographer, Tolkien was able to

  construct a map of his fictional world.

  cascade N. /小瀑布/small waterfall. We were too tired to appreciate the beauty of the many cascades because we had

  to detour around them to avoid being drenched by the water cascading down.

  castigate V. /严厉批评;惩罚/criticize severely; punish. When the teacher threatened that she would castigate the

  mischievous boys if they didn't behave, they shaped up in a hurry.

  casualty N. /严重的事故;伤亡/serious or fatal accident. The number of automotive casualties on this holiday weekend

  was high.

  cataclysm N. /巨变;剧变;灾难/upheaval; deluge. A cataclysm such as the French Revolution affects all countries.

  cataclysmic, ADJ.

  catalyst N. /催化剂/agent which brings about a chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged. Many

  chemical reactions cannot take place without the presence of a catalyst.

  catapult N. /弹弓;弹舐器/slingshot; a hurling machine. Airplanes are sometimes launched from battleships by catapults.

  also V.

  cataract N. /大瀑布;白内障/great waterfall; eye abnormality. She gazed with awe at the m ighty cataract known as

  Niagara Falls.

  catastrophe N. /灾难/calamity; disaster. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was a catastrophe that destroyed most

  of the city. A similar earthquake striking today could have even more catastrophic results.

  catcall N. /嘘声/shout of disapproval; boo. Every major league pitcher has off days during which he must learn to

  ignore the catcalls and angry hisses from the crowd.

  catechism N. /教义问答手册;FAQ,Q&A/book for religious instruction; instruction by question and answer. He taught by

  engaging his pupils in a catechism until they gave him the correct answer.

  categorical ADJ. /无条件;直截了当/without exceptions; unqualified; absolute. Though the captain claimed he was never,

  never sick at sea, he finally had to qualify his categorical denial: he was "hardly ever" sick at sea.

  cater to V. /迎合/supply something desired (whether good or bad). The chef was happy to cater to the tastes of his

  highly sophisticated clientele. Critics condemned the movie industry for catering to the public's ever-increasing appetite for violence.

  catharsis N. /导泻,通便;疏泄/purging or cleansing of any passage of the body. Aristotle maintained that tragedy

  created a catharsis by purging the soul of base concepts.

  catholic ADJ. /一般的,普遍的;天主教/broadly sympathetic; liberal. He was extremely catholic in his taste and read

  everything he could find in the library.

  caucus N. /核心小组会议(秘密)/private meeting of members of a party to select officers or determine policy. At the

  opening of Congress, the members of the Democratic Party held a caucus to elect the Majority Leader of the House and the Party Whip.

  caulk V. /填;补漏/make watertight by filling in cracks. Jack had to caulk the tiles in the shower stall to stop the leak into

  the basement below.

  causal ADJ. /因果关系的/implying a cause-and-effect relationship. The psychologist maintained there was a causal

  relationship between the nature of one's early childhood experiences and one's adult personality. causality, N.

  caustic ADJ. /腐蚀;挖苦/burning; sarcastically biting. The critic's caustic remarks angered the hapless actors who were

  the subjects of his sarcasm.

  cavalcade N. /队伍/procession; parade. As described by Chaucer, the cavalcade of Canterbury pilgrims was a

  motley group.

  cavalier ADJ. /随便;傲慢/offhand or casual; haughty. The disguised prince resented the cavalier way in which the palace guards treated him. How dared they handle a member of the royal family so unceremoniously!

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