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  (一)和写作有关

  1. allusive:characterized by indirect references即不直接指出,而是引经据典来解释。在阅读题当中一定要注意只有当叙述的方式是indirect(比如从别人嘴里或者文献里记载得到),那么才可以称为allusive,或者allusion。

  Eg:Readers previously__ by the complexity and__ of Joyce’s Ulysses will find Gilbert’s study of the novel a helpful introduction.

  (A) charmed, obscurity

  (B) rejected, length

  (C) inhibited, intelligibility

  (D) daunted, allusiveness

  (E) enlightened, transparency

  2.analytical:分析性的,这个单词在阅读的写作手法题中碰到的机会特别多。他的特点非常明显,即一定要有条件或者假设,然后由这些条件和假设按一定的推理逻辑得出某个结论。

  3. argumentative::descriptive,这两种一般很容易区分,但也有一些不容易区分的时候,argumentative是对别人已经表明了的观点进行(1)条件是否为真,(2)推理过程是否恰当这样一个过程,那么这样的文章就是argumentative,而descriptive的文章只是在叙述,或者会表达自己的感情(喜怒哀乐鄙视欣赏等),但没有分析感情是否为理性,也即感情背后的原因是模糊的。

  4. assumption:假设,很简单。现在阅读题经常会出一些逻辑题目,如下:

  OG-853-15

  The next to report is the psychologist, who proposes: “The inside of the barn should be painted green. This is a more mellow color than brown and should help induce greater milk flow. Also, more trees should be planted in the fields to add diversity to the scenery for the cattle during grazing, to reduce boredom.”

  Question: The psychologist’s remarks are based on the assumption that

  A. any implied psychological similarity between cows and humans is inappropriate

  B. psychology derives insight from current theories of aesthetics

  C. individualized attention to cows will yield measurable increases in milk

  D. contented cows will produce more milk than bored or anxious ones

  E. each cow will respond differently to attempts to increase milk production

  前提:mellow color (mellow成熟的)

  结论:induce greater milk flow (注意should ,must这种单词后面都会引起结论,这样之前当然也就是前提了)

  推出方式: more mellow color->induce greater milk flow

  什么叫假设呢?其实是这样的本来A->B,但是由A推出B太突兀,所以说假设以起这样的功能A->C->B,C既是假设,所以假设一定是前提能推出来的,然后又能推出结论来这样一条链。即C的叙述里首先是要要有前提,然后又要有结论的内容。显然

  more mellow color->induce greater milk flow的推理太突兀,所以应该有中间条件,也即假设存在,即more mellow color->more contented( more contented cows produce more milk)->induce greater milk flow

  5. baseless=unfounded,

  Unfounded: without a basis in reason or fact. 没有根据的, unfounded rumor 无稽之谈

  情景: Talented children "burn themselves out" in the early years, and, therefore, are subjected to failure and at worst, mental illness. 对这句话判断的话,显然是unfounded。

  6. Comical:滑稽的,见第二讲讲义。

  7. Commentary:评论的,能对得起这个词语的真正意义的恐怕中国只有黄建翔了。因为commentary就是要说出你想说的任何表达你感情和意见的话即可。

  8. Criticism:见前面critical

  9. dark foreboding:不祥的预感

  10. dramatic:dramatize,戏剧性的,什么叫戏剧性的表达呢?比如说,你把小说改编成剧本,然后再搬上荧幕或者成为话剧,这个过程就是 dramatize

  11. emphasize,highlight,stress 强调,通常是通过加重语气或者描写的细致一些

  12. enumerate:列举。通常和parallel(排比)联系在一块。

  13. euphemism:委婉的说法

  a polite word or expression that you use instead of a more direct one to avoid shocking or upsetting someone. 比如你说pass away来代替die,还比如老毛常说自己“马上就要去见马克思了”,都是一种euphemism,可以看出euphemism都是通过减低了本来的意思(但动作方向相同来代指程度非常严重的词汇)。

  1)“Old Nick” is one of several__ people use when they want to refer indirectly to the Devil.

  (A) euphemisms

  (B) banalities

  (C) arguments

  (D) apostrophes

  (E) eulogies

  2) The Tanaina live in an environment that could euphemistically be described as “difficult”.

  Question: The sentence in which “difficult” appears

  (A) an exaggeration

  (B) an estimate

  (C) an understatement

  (D) a contradiction

  (E) a preconception

  典型的考察单词euphemistically

  14. figurative:比喻性的。

  "A sweet temper" is a figurative expression, but "sweet coffee" is not。

  比喻:metaphor;对比:contrast;拟人:personification;引用:quotation;排比:parallel

  15. guarded skepticism:谨慎的怀疑。即因为某些条件不知道,所以不能完全否定。

  16. histrionic:戏剧化的characteristic of acting or a stage performance; often affected,melodramatic(his+story,他的故事,戏剧化的)

  (1)The patient bore the pain____, nether wincing nor whimpering when the incision was made.

  (A) histrionically (B) stoically (C) sardonically (D)poorly (E)marginally

  (2)Actors in melodramas often emphasized tense moments by being____, for example, raising their voices and pretending to swoon.

  (A) imperious

  (B) inscrutable

  (C) convivial

  (D) histrionic

  (E) solicitous

  很多同学会选convivial,因为他觉得这是栩栩如生的(convivial),显然这里raising their voices等都是为了吸引注意力,所以是histrionic

  17. implausible:having a quality that provokes disbelief.不像真实的

  Their daughter’s story was so entirely implausible that the parents believe it to be___.

  (A) an explanation

  (B) an intimidation

  (C) a fabrication

  (D)a rationalization

  (E) a confirmation

  Fabrication为捏造的意思。

  18. informative:full of news资料丰富的。什么样的文章才算得上是informative?越专业的文章越informative,比如基因学,人类学等文章

  19. lyrical:beautifully expressed in words, poetry, or music 让人愉悦的

  20. melodramatic=histrionic (特点是affected)

  21. note a qualification:指出一项限制性的条件,所以只有当文章叙述人或物自身条件是多么符合一项限制(任务,评论)时,才是note a qualification。an attribute that must be met or complied with and that fits a person for something。

  22. open amusement:情景很简单,平常我们看的相声或者小品,都是open amusement

  23. oversimplification:过于简单化,注意过于。一般选项中出现它都是错误选项。

  24. paradoxically:参见第二讲内容,自相矛盾的

  25. pedagogical:教学法的(ped脚+ag做,教学的时候都是脚走来走去的)

  Some entertainers, their egos inflated by celebrity, see themselves as ------- figures to whom ordinary moral ------- do not necessarily apply.

  (A) penitent . . rules

  (B) privileged . . constraints

  (C) pedagogical . . enticements

  (D) redundant . . conventions

  (E) gifted . . benefits

  26. persuasive:相当有说服力的

  Thanks to his eloquence and logic, Liam spoke __ and made it difficult for even his bitterest opponents to___ his opinions.

  (A) monotonously---clash with

  (B) charmingly---yield to

  (C) tediously---contend with

  (D) abhorrently--- concede to

  (E) persuasively--- disagree with

  27. repercussion:反响(re回来+percus震动),强调重要的事件的影响。

  The president's death had unexpected repercussion。总统的逝世引起出乎意料的反响。

  28. rhapsodize:say something with great enthusiasm. 过份赞美

  Trying to ------- about post-modern literature is not only ------- but also foolish, because it is a movement that encompasses many different styles and elements.

  (A) brag … necessary

  (B) generalize … difficult

  (C) complain … important

  (D) rhapsodize … fatuous

  (E) learn … fair

  29. scientific evidence <>description <>observation, 一定要区分好三者之间的区别

  scientific evidence:通过统计数据来描述问题 (爱因斯坦说过,只有当一门科学融入数学才会得到发展);description:只是对其中某个样本进行描述,即description,没有统计支持;observation:是比description更窄的概念,它只是指description中能运用你的五官得到的信息。

  30. tentative:实验性的,文章当中一定表明这是验证某个未成公理的结论所做的才是试验。

  31. travesty:滑稽化的作品(tra反+vest衣服,反穿衣服,滑稽化来表现某些意图)

  used in order to say that something is extremely bad and is not what it is claimed to be.

  Their marriage was a complete travesty. (即他们不是在结婚,而是进入围城之类的。。可怕)

  parody =travesty=lampoon 拙劣的模仿性诗文

  The hospital’s inept administration was so__ that the doctors working there considered the facility a__, debasing the entire medical profession.

  (A) apathetic, victory

  (B) exacting, spectacle

  (C) astute, debacle

  (D) negligent, travesty

  (E) surreptitious, triumph

  32. unsubstantiated=ungrounded=baseless

  33. veiled:a veiled threat, warning, attack, reference etc is expressed so that its exact meaning is hidden or unclear,=hidden

  (1)'I'm impressed,' said Greg, with thinly veiled (=only slightly hidden) sarcasm.

  34. veiled criticism:hidden criticism

  35. veiled distaste: hidden distaste

  36. veiled malice: hidden malice

  (二)延续性动词动作内涵

  1.Speculation:the act of forming opinions about what has happened or what might happen without knowing all the facts. 在有限信息基础上的推测,所以这个推测总不是那么的准。此外speculation还表示投机。

  2.Investigation:正好是speculation相对的概念,指科学的实际调查。

  3.Anticipation:the act of predicting (as by reasoning about the future),pleasure expectation,所以anticipation表示美好的愿望,而且是有根有据的,而不像speculation,是建立在很少的事实的基础上的。

  4.Generosity:慷慨的,情景很简单,generosity,generous(来自于gen),我们复习一下表示慷慨的一些单词 magnanimous(mag大+anim生命),还有benevolent,charitable等

  5.Possessive:desirous of owning 占有欲的

  (三)与信仰有关

  1. altruism n.利他主义,不自私 <> egoism self-centered 利己主义

  2. asceticism n.禁欲主义

  3. celibacy n.独身(主义)

  4. chauvinism n.沙文主义,盲目爱国主义

  5. cynicism n.愤世嫉俗,犬儒主义

  6. eclecticism n.折衷主义

  eclectic:including a mixture of many different things or people, especially so that you can use the best of all of them,所以在这里eclectic是褒义词,千万不要理解为贬义词!

  而mediocre,是个绝对的贬义词,就等于awful,lacklustrous,shoddy

  (1)New York designer Anna Sui creates eclectic clothes that represent an___ of playful, 1970’s funky styles fused with an edgy, urban sensibility.

  (A) induction

  (B) amalgam

  (C) immersion

  (D) occlusion

  (E) estrangement

  Amalgam(从形状上看就是两个am混合了alg)

  (2)Jean Georges was famous for his----cuisine, which brought together ingredients from many cooking traditions—Thai, Chinese, French—and combined them in innovative ways.

  (A) aesthetic

  (B) clandestine

  (C) homogeneous

  (D) eclectic

  (E) conventional

  (3)Isabella’s____ style is best seen in her architecture, which combines elements of Byzantine Greek, Roman, and Gothic periods.

  (A) reticent (B)eclectic (C)mystical (D) formulaic (E) eminent

  7. empiricism n.经验主义

  Scientists require observable data, not -------, to support a hypothesis; sound science is grounded

  in ------- results rather than speculation.

  (A) induction . . diminutive

  (B) experimentation . . pragmatic

  (C) intuition . . fiscal

  (D) bombast . . theoretical

  (E) conjecture . . empirical

  从这道题里我们可以看出empirical和speculative是两种截然相反的科学态度。

  8. hedonism n.享乐主义,享乐

  9. jingoism(读音,靖国神社) n.沙文主义,侵略主义

  10. nihilism n.虚无主义,无政府主义

  11. optimism n.乐观主义

  12. patriotism n.爱国主义,爱国心 <>treachery/betray 叛国

  13. pragmatic adj.实际的,实用主义的 pragmatism n.实用主义

  In a ______ society that worships efficiency, it is difficult for a sensitive and idealistic person to make the kinds of ______ decisions that alone spell success as it is defined by such a society.

  A) bureaucratic … edifying

  B) pragmatic … hardheaded

  C) rational…well-intentioned

  D) competitive… evenhanded

  E) modern … dysfunctional

  14. reciprocity n.互惠主义,相互利益

  15. totalitarian adj.极权主义的

  16. Idealism: 如共产主义也好,社会主义也好,为此奋斗不已,而且没有功利的念头,这就是idealism,理想主义;与此相对的则是materialism,现实主义

  The world of Hernrich Boll’s early novels is one of impersonal malice, thinly camouflaged with patriotic and other___ clichés, in which relief is provided only by occasional___ of genuine human emotion.

  (A) pragmatic, absences

  (B) ideological, manifestations

  (C) conceptual, lapses

  (D) ephemeral, loss

  (E) scholarly, vestiges

  填空题做题方法就不讲了,这里ideological是理想的意思。

  17. Practicality:就是materialism的意思。

  18. Expectation:期待,期望,是对将要发生的事情一种美好的愿望。

  19. Reality:是现在所正在发生的事情。

  以上内容由智课小编为大家整理的关于“SAT词汇中抽象词分析”,希望可以帮助到大家,小编在此预祝大家在考试中取得好成绩!

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