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  写作部分

  5 月亚洲的写作原文来自 Joanne Lipman 在 New York Times 上发表的文章“Let’s expose the gender pay gap”。从话题来看是大家非常熟悉的女性平权问题,背景不陌生。文章结构清晰,词汇语法使用平实,论证手法易于识别,总体来说是难度较低的篇章,符合近期 SAT 亚洲写作真题的出题规律,即阅读文章难度不高,重点考察大家的分析能力。

  写作篇章分析:

  文章开篇第 1、2 段首先提出问题,信息量较小,对观点支持力度低,可不写。

  3、4 段通过数据对比和作者自己的调查表明:女性在职业中平均工资少于同工种男性,同时公司老板并没有明显性别偏见,但同工不同酬却成为事实。两段抛出现状,令读者认清事实,同时产生疑问:如果不是管理者的性别偏见,那么是什么导致了薪资的 gender gap 呢?从而为下文指出原因做好引入和铺垫。

  第 5 段通过权威解答了问题的原因:女性较少提出加薪,或提出的加薪幅度较低。同时指出鼓励女性提出薪资要求这个方法还不足以解决问题。第 6 段使用欧洲多国例子提出作者支持的方法:政府介入,要求公司提供 gender gap 的薪资数据。此两段解答了读者之前的疑惑,同时抛出 solution,直接套用 solution的分析思路即可。

  7、8、9、10 四段使用了明显的澄清。作者首先指出反对者批评这种方法过于复杂和昂贵,并没有针对问题的根源,即系统性社会问题和性别偏见。但是马上通过一家公司的例子证明,把差异数据揭示出来确实产生了强大的动力来帮助消灭薪资 gap,因为可以可以帮助公司更好地关注不够公平的地方,从而着力解决。同时,针对费用昂费的批评,作者又澄清道分析薪资水平比花大价钱去训练员工理解潜在的性别偏见实际上更省钱。从而消除读者疑虑,增强了他solution 的说服力。

  下面附上本次考试的写作部分原文,供大家参考:

  Let’s expose the gender pay gap

  Joanne Lipman

  1 HOW serious are we, really, about tackling income equality? ...

  2 More than a half-century after President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the gap between what men and women earn has defied every effort to close it. And it can’t be explained away as a statistical glitch, a function of women preferring lower-paying industries or choosing to take time off for kids.

  3 Claudia Goldin, a labor economist at Harvard, has crunched the numbers and found that the gap persists for identical jobs, even after controlling for hours, education, race and age. Female doctors and surgeons, for example, earn 71 percent of what their male colleagues make,while female financial specialists are paid just 66 percent as much as comparable men. Other researchers have calculated that women one year out of college earn 6.6 percent less than men after controlling for occupation and hours, and that female M.B.A. graduates earn on average $4,600 less than their male classmates for their first jobs.

  4 It’s not that men are intentionally discriminating against women —far from it.I’ve spent the past year interviewing male executives for a book about men and women in the workplace. A vast majority of them are fair-minded guys who want women to succeed. They’re absolutely certain that they don’t have a gender problem themselves; it must be some other guys who do. Yet they’re leaders of companies that pay men more than women for the same jobs.

  5 Women are trying mightily to close that chasm on their own. Linda Babcock, an economist at Carnegie Mellon and co-author of the book “Women Don’ t Ask,”has found that one reason for the disparity is that men are fourtimes more likely to ask for a raise than women are, and that when women doask, we ask for 30 percent less. And so women are told we need to lean in, to demand to be paid what we’re worth. It’s excellent advice—except it isn’t enough.

  6 There is an antidote to the problem.Britain recently introduced a plan requiring companies with 250 employees or more to publicly report their own gender pay gap. It joins a handful of other countries, including Austria and Belgium, that have introduced similar rules.(In the UnitedStates, President Obama last year signed a presidential memorandum instructing federal contractors to report wage information by genderand race to the Department of Labor.) The disclosures “will castsunlight on the discrepancies and create the pressure we need for change,driving women’s wages up,” Prime Minister David Cameron said last month.

  7 Critics of the British plan protest that it’s too expensive and complex. Some contend that it doesn’t address the root of the problem: systemic issues that block women from higher-paying industries, and social issues like unconscious bias.

  8 But real-world results suggest otherwise. Last year, the consulting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers voluntarily released its gender pay gap in Britain, one of five firms in the country, including AstraZeneca, to do so. Simply saying the number out loud “created muchmore momentum internally” to close it, Sarah Churchman, who runs the firm’s British diversity and inclusion efforts, told me.

  9 PricewaterhouseCoopers’s analysis showed that most of its 15.1 percent pay disparity (compared with a Britain-wide gap of more than 19 percent) reflected a lack of women in senior jobs. So the firm focused on whether it was promoting fairly. In 2013, the grade just below partner was 30 percent female, yet only 16 percent of those promoted to partnerwere women. A year later, the percentage of women promoted to partner had more than doubled...

  10 The potential cost savings of publishing the gender wage gap are enormous. About 20 percent of large companies now train employees to recognize unconscious bias, spending billions of dollars to try to stamp out unintentional discrimination. Paying for a salary analysis is cheaper and potentially more effective. Evidence also suggests that less secrecy about pay results in greater employee loyalty and lower turnover...

  11 Political realities being what they are,the chances of achieving [full] transparency are slim; even the tepid C.E.O.pay gap rule took the S.E.C. five years to push through, in the face of fierce industry opposition.

  12 But why would we not want a measure that will settle the controversy over the pay gap with quantifiable facts? Shining some much-needed sunlight on the gender wage gap will make a difference for every one of us, men and women, right now.

  Thesis:Companies should be required to publish pay differences between man and women.

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