chortle V. /得意的笑/chuckle with delight. When she heard that her rival had just been jailed for embezzlement, she chortled with joy. She was not a nice lady.

  chronic ADJ. /慢性的/long established as a disease. The doctors were finally able to attribute his chronic headaches and nausea to traces of formaldehyde gas in his apartment.

  chronicle V. /编年史/report; record (in chronological order). The gossip columnist was paid to chronicle the latest escapades of the socially prominent celebrities. also N.

  churlish ADJ. /粗鲁的/boorish; rude. Dismayed by his churlish mapners at the party, the girls vowed never to invite him again.

  cipher N. /密码/secret code. Lacking his code book, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him in cipher.

  cipher N. /不重要的人或物/nonentity; worthless person or thing. She claimed her ex-husband was a total cipher and wondered why she had ever married him.

  circuitous ADJ. /迂回的/roundabout. To avoid the traffic congestion on the main highways, she took a circuitous route. circuit, N.

  *circumlocution N. /婉转曲折的表达/indirect or roundabout expression. He was afraid to call a spade a spade and resorted to circumlocutions to avoid direct reference to his subject.

  circumscribe V. /限制/limit; confine. Although I do not wish to circumscribe your activities, I must insist that you complete this assignment before you start anything else.

  circumspect ADJ. /慎重;周到/prudent; cautious. Investigating before acting, she tried always to be circumspect.

  circumvent V. /智取;包围/outwit; baffle. In order to circumvent the enemy, we will make two preliminary attacks in other sections before starting our major campaign.

  cistern N. /水塔;水库/reservoir or water tank. The farmers were able to withstand the dry season by using rainwater they had stored in an underground cistern.

  citadel N. /大本营/fortress. The citadel overlooked the city like a protecting angel.

  cite V. /引用;掌握/quote; command. She could cite passages in the Bible from memory. citation, N.

  Civil ADJ. /民事的;国民的/having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite. Although Internal Revenue Service agents are civil servants, they are not always civil to suspected tax cheats.

  clairvoyant ADJ. N. /预知;预言者/having foresight; fortuneteller. Cassandra's clairvoyant warning was not heeded by the Trojans. clairvoyance, N.

  clamber V. /爬/climb by crawling. She clambered over the wall.

  clamor N. /吵闹声;噪音/noise. The clamor of the children at play outside made it impossible for her to take a nap. alsoV.

  clandestine ADJ. /秘密/secret. After avoiding their chaperon, the lovers had a clandestine meeting.

  clangor N. /大声喧哗;持续的铿锵声/loud, resounding noise. The blacksmith was accustomed to the clangor of hammers on steel.

  clapper N. /铃舌,钟舌/striker (tongue) of a bell. Wishing to be undisturbed by the bell, Dale wound his scarf around the clapper to muffle the noise of its striking.

  clasp N. /扣合;紧密合作/fastening device; firm grip. When the clasp on Judy's bracelet broke, Fred repaired it, bending the hook back into shape. He then helped her slip on the bracelet, holding it firm in the sure clasp of his hand.

  claustrophobia N. /幽闭恐怖症/fear of being locked in. His fellow classmates laughed at his claustrophobia and often threatened to lock him in his room.

  cleave V. /劈开;黏着;忠于/split or sever; cling to; remain faithful to. With her heavy cleaver, Julia Child can cleave a whole roast duck in two. Soaked through, the soldier tugged at the uniform that cleaved annoyingly to his body. He would cleave to his post, come rain or shine.