列奥纳多·达·芬奇1452 年生于佛罗伦萨芬奇镇附近的安基亚诺村,1519 年殁于法国安波斯城克鲁堡,是欧洲文艺复兴最杰出的代表。他不仅是著名的艺术家,而且是伟大的科学家。他是一位知识渊博、多才多艺的人,恩格斯对他的评价很高,赞扬他"不仅是大画家,而且与是大数学家、力学家和工程师"。

  达·芬奇从小勤奋好学,天赋聪明。从孩提时代开始,他就喜爱画画,人们称他为小画家。他的父亲赛尔·比埃罗·达·芬奇是佛罗伦萨的公证人。达·芬奇是私生子,5 岁时,生母被其父遗弃,他从小就跟祖父在乡下生活。由于他天资过人,14岁时拜艺术家委罗基奥为师,到画室学画。他认真学习和钻研各方面的知识,为后来在艺术及科学方面的提高打下了良好的基础。

  达·芬奇一生的艺术活动分为早、中、晚三个时期,早期活动在佛罗伦萨,中期在米兰和佛罗伦萨峡谷地,晚期在米兰。1513~1516 年,他奔走于罗马和佛罗伦萨之间。他一生创作颇丰,主要成就有以下几个方面:绘画方面创作了《蒙娜丽莎》《最后的晚餐》等一系列重要作品;音乐方面能唱歌弹琴,吹奏笛子,谱曲作词,还主持文艺演出活动,设计舞台背景和服装、道具;医学方面,医学家们公认达?芬奇是近代生理解剖的始祖;水利工程方面,达?芬奇对水利学的研究比意大利的学者克斯铁列早一个世纪,而且其设计的一些水利设施至今仍在发挥作用。除此之外,达芬奇还在物理,数学,天文,机械等方面具有重要的贡献。

  Leonardo da Vinci(1452 – 1519)

  Leonardo da Vinci was born in April 15, 1452 in Vinci, Italy. Leonardo's mastery in art, science and engineering have earned him a place among the most prolific geniuses of history. He was one of the most important artists of the Italian Renaissance, a period when the arts and sciences flourished. At age 17, Leonardo and his father moved to Florence, where he apprenticed to Verrocchio. His brilliance soon eclipsed that of his master. In 1472 Leonardo became a member of the painter's guild of Florence, where he had contact with other great Florentine artists including Michelangelo Buonarroti.

  In 1481 Leonardo left Florence for Milan to offer his service to the local Duke. During this period he painted the Virgin of the Rocks and the Last Supper. In 1499 Leonardo left Milan, traveling through Mantua, to the court of Isabella d'Este; to Venice, where he consulted on architecture from 1495 to 1499; and in 1502 and 1503 was military engineer for Cesare Borgia. After his service to the Borgias, Leonardo returned to Florence. It was during the period between 1503 and 1506, while working primarily in Florence, that he had his greatest following and painted such classics as the "Mona Lisa."

  Leonardo left Florence for Milan in 1506, although he returned in 1507-8 to fight for his inheritance from his Uncle. In 1509 he returned to Milan and devoted much of his time to scientific studies, and to engineering projects such as channeling the course of the Adda river. In 1512 Leonardo left Milan again, and from 1513 to 1516 was in Rome under the protection of Giuliano de Medici, the brother of Pope Leo X. Here Leonardo came into contact with Michelangelo, and another young rival, Raphael. After the death of Giuliano dei Medici, Leonardo accepted an invitation from French friends and moved to the castle of Cloux near Amboise, where he stayed with his faithful pupil Melzi until the end of his life. Leonardo died on May 2, 1519, and was buried in the cloister of San Fiorentino in Amboise.

  名言 :Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; …even so does inaction sap the vigor of the mind.

  Key words: versatility