76. Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today.
(A) of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(B) of different mental functions that are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(C) that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(D) which is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(E) which is widely accepted today is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain
77. Though the term "graphic design" may suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging work, from package designs and company logotypes to signs, book jackets, computer graphics, and film titles.
(A) suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging
(B) suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, it has come to signify a wide range of
(C) suggest corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified widely ranging
(D) have suggested corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified a wide range of
(E) have suggested laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely
78. The root systems of most flowering perennials either become too crowded, which results in loss in vigor,and spread too far outward, producing a bare center.
(A) which results in loss in vigor, and spread
(B) resulting in loss in vigor, or spreading
(C) with the result of loss of vigor, or spreading
(D) resulting in loss of vigor, or spread
(E) with a resulting loss of vigor, and spread
79. George Sand (Aurore Lucile Dupin) was one of the first European writers to consider the rural poor to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these with sympathy and respect in her novels.
(A) to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these
(B) should be legitimate subjects for literature: portray these
(C) as being legitimate subjects for literature an portraying them
(D) as if they were legitimate subjects for literal; and portray them
(E) legitimate subjects for literature and to portray them
80. Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.
(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those
Answer to Question 76
Choices A and B are faulty because a relative clause beginning with that is needed to state Gall's hypothesis.
The phrase of there being, as used in A, is wordy and unidiomatic; in B, of different mental functions does not convey Gall's point about those functions. Choices D and E are awkward and wordy, and both use which where that would be the preferred pronoun for introducing a clause that states Gall's point. Further, the phrasing of E misleadingly suggests that a distinction is being made between this hypothesis and others by Gall that are not widely accepted today. Choice C is best.
Answer to Question 77
Choice A contains an agreement error: the term requires the singular it has in place of the plural they have. Furthermore, widely ranging is imprecise: graphic design work does not range about widely but rather comprises a wide range of activities. Choice C contains widely ranging and, like D, fails to use a verb form such as laying out to define the activities, instead presenting an awkward noun phrase: corporate brochure and annual report layout. The present perfect tense is used inappropriately in choices C (has signified), D (have suggested... has signified), and E (have suggested) to indicate recently completed rather than ongoing action. Additionally, E contains the incorrect they have and the imprecise widely ranging. Choice B is best.
Answer to Question 78
Choice A misuses which: as a relative pronoun, which should refer to a specific noun rather than to the action of an entire clause. A also produces the unidiomatic and illogical construction either... and. Choice B properly uses a verb phrase (resulting ...) instead of which to modify the action of the first clause and also correctly completes either with or, but the verbs following either and or are not parallel: spreading must be spread to match become. Choice C is flawed by the nonparallel verb spreading and the wordy phrase that begins with the result of. Choice E is similarly wordy and uses and where or is required. Choice D--concise, idiomatic, and parallel with the rest of the sentence--is best.
Answer to Question 79
When the verb consider is used to mean "regard" or "deem," it can be used more economically without the to be of choice A; should be in choice B, as being in choice C, and as if in choice D are used unidiomatically with this sense of consider, and D carries the unwarranted suggestion that Sand is somehow viewing the rural poor hypothetically. Choice E, therefore, is best: each of the other choices inserts an unnecessary, unidiomatic, or misleading phrase before legitimate subjects. Moreover, A and B incorrectly use these rather than them as the pronoun referring to the poor. In C, portraying is not parallel with to consider. Only E has to portray, although not essential, to underscores the parallelism of portray and consider.
Answer to Question 80
Choice A, the best answer, uses the simple past tense flourished to describe civilizations existing
simultaneously in the past. Choice B wrongly uses the past perfect had flourished; past perfect tense indicates action that was completed prior to some other event described in the simple past tense: for example, "Mayan civilization had ceased to exist by the time Europeans first reached the Americas." Choice C lacks as after time. In choices C, D, and E, the plural pronoun those has no plural noun to which it can refer. In C, had signals the incorrect past perfect; did in D and were in E are awkward and unnecessary. D and E also incorrectly use the present participle flourishing where that flourished is needed.