Pattern 1 Definition

  (1) add to the definition by offering specific examples;

  (2) provide information about history, location, context, or usage;

  (3) explain how the term differs from a similar word or phrase;

  (4) further define the key term by introducing its antonym, or term opposite in meaning.

  Pattern 2 Comparison and Contrast

  (1) With the help of comparison, authors can help readers better understand the things being compared. For example, comparing something abstract with something concrete and familiar may help readers easily know the former.

  (2) With the help of contrast, authors will be able to emphasize something effectively by putting it in front of its opposite. For example, by putting the beautiful and the ugly, or the good and the evil together, an author can easily convince readers the beauty or kindness of a person.

  Pattern 3 Cause and Effect

  The process of explaining how an event leads to or produces another is the pattern of cause and effect. In this pattern, if A leads to B, A is called the cause while B the effect. The pattern of cause and effect, when used, helps readers to have a clear understanding of not only what happens or what happens first, but more importantly why something happens, which is essential for knowing about an event.

  Pattern 4 Time Order

  Writers use the process pattern to tell their readers how something works, happens, or develops.

  (1) describe what made a particular span of time eventful or memorable, making people realize the significance or influence of something;

  (2) chart the career of an important figure, helping readers to have a better understanding of the person discussed;

  (3) explain how some theory, invention, or activity came to be part of culture or history, building a general background for readers or to help them realize the significance of them.

  Pattern 5 classifications

  In the classification pattern, the order of the supporting details is also not important. However, there is a critical difference between simple listing and classification. Paragraphs relying on the classification pattern always make the same point: They tell the reader how some larger group can be broken down into smaller subgroups, or classes, each with its own defining set of characteristics. The use of classification patterns can help readers to understand easier abstract or complicated concepts, ideas, or events.