Kinds of Evidences证据

  Fact (事实)


  举例:Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for “light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at both the national and state levels.” Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep. (Fact)

  Example (例子)


  举例:The rest of the world depends on darkness as well, including nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, insects, mammals, fish and reptiles. Some examples are well known—the 400 species of birds that migrate at night in North America, the sea turtles that come ashore to lay their eggs—and some are not, such as the bats that save American farmers billions in pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the world’s flora. Ecological light pollution is like the bulldozer of the night, wrecking habitat and disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. (Example)

  Statistics (数据)


  举例:In 2001 the National Association of Manufacturers polled (statistic) its members on skill deficiencies among employees. Among hourly workers, poor reading skills ranked second, and 38 percent of employers complained that local schools inadequately taught reading comprehension.

  Quotation (引用)


  举例:Dr. Michael Karsten, a Dutch physician who said he had prescriber anabolic steroids to hundreds of world-class athletes, states, “If you are especially gifted, you may win once, but from my experience you can’t continue to win without drugs. The field is just too filled with drug users”.(direct quotation) Dr. Michael Karsten, a Dutch physician who said he had prescribed anabolic steroids to hundreds of world-class athletes, stated that if athletes were especially gifted, they might win once, but from his experience they couldn't continue to win without drugs. He asserted that the field was-just too filled with drug users. (indirect quotation)