例一：Paragraph 4 (line 29-37):Yawning can also be a Sign of stress in humans. Once, when observing airborne troops about to take their first parachute jump, I noticed that several of the soldiers were sitting in the plane and yawning. It was 10 A.M., just after a research is a time-consuming coffee break, and I doubted that they were tired; I knew for a fact that they were far too nervous to be bored. When I asked about this, the officer in charge laughed and said it primarily was really quite a common behavior, especially on the first jump.
15. The author uses which of the following in the fourth paragraph (lines 29-37) ?
讲解：这道题很简单，作者通过叙述自己的一件亲身经历的事情来证明段落开头的分论点即“Yawning can also be a Sign of stress in humans”所以作者在这里所运用的就是E项 ANECDOTE(轶事)。
例二：Passage 1 (line 3-9)
For millennia, parents have recognized the newborn s basic need for safety, nourishment, warmth, and nurturing. Now science has added stunning revelations about human development from birth to age three., confining that parents and other adult caregivers play a critical role in influencing a child’s development.
9. Lines 3-9 of Passage 1 ("For millennia ... development") draw a parallel between
(A) traditional practices and contemporary critiques
(B) basic human needs and intellectual endeavors
(C) widespread beliefs and scientific findings
(D) parental anxieties and developmental advances
(E) experimental hypotheses and proven theories
例三：Passage 2 (line 46-56)
Doctors, architects, executives, consultants, receptionists, and lawyers all manage to survive economically without "owning" their cognition. I take further comfort in the fact that the human species managed to produce pretty decent creative work during the 5,000 years that preceded 1710, when the Statute of Anne, the world’s first modem copyright law, passed the British parliament. Sophocles, Dante, da Vinci, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Newton, Cervantes, Bach-- all found reasons to get out of bed in the morning without expecting to own the works they created.
15. The use of the phrase "pretty decent" in Passage 2 (line 50) conveys
(A) solemn detachment
(B) cheerful celebration
(C) ironic understatement
(D) lingering doubt
(E) reluctant approval
Uncle: Take care! take care! (warning her with voice and hand that trembled alike.)
Niece: Why? What shadow of power have you over me? Why should I fear you?
Uncle: Take care, madam!
Niece: Scrupulous care I will take, Mr. Sympson. Before I marry, I am resolved to esteem--to admire—to love.
14. In lines 80-82 ("Scrupulous...love"), Miss Keeldar deflects the warning from Mr. Sympson by
(A) deliberately misunderstanding his meaning
(B) scornfully turning the blame back on him
(C) childishly mocking the tone of his comment
(D) lamenting his failure to sympathize with her
(E) justifying her previously sensible behavior
定义：A figure of speech which contains an understatement of emphasis, and therefore the opposite of hyperbole. Often used in everyday speech and usually with laconic or ironic intentions.
例子：1.I know he is honest, and I wish I could add he were capable.
此句也是用虚拟语气来体现understatement，I could add he were capable其实是在说“但他不够能干”。
2.The face wasn’t a bad one; it had what they called charm.
此句不是冲淡她的魅力，而是采用低调渲染，意即The face was sweet; her charm conquered everybody. 明似贬抑，实则褒扬.
定义：A figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared.
例子：1.He is something of a political chameleon.他有点象政治上的变色龙
2.He looked as if he had just stepped out of my book of fairytales and had passed me like a spirit.
定义：It attacks in a taunting and bitter manner, and its aim is to disparage ,ridicule and wound the feelings of the subject attacked
例子：1.Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies ,but let wasps break through
2.Behind every successful man, there is a woman. And behind every ， unsuccessful man , there are two.
每个成功男人的背后,都有一个女人. 每个不成功男人的背后, 都有两个.
定义：a statement that is formulated as a question but that is not supposed to be answered a question to which no answer is required: used it for dramatic or emphasis effect
例子：1.Did you help me when I needed help?
2.Did you once offer to intercede in my behalf?
定义：The use of a word in such a way as to suggest two or more meanings or different associations, or the use of two or more words of the same or nearly the same sound with different meanings, so as to produce a humorous effect.
例子：1.Mother: Your hair needs cutting badly.
Daughter: I think it needs cutting nicely, it was cut badly last time .
(badly: a. 非常; b. 坏)
2.Judge: Tell me why you parked there.
Driver: Because, Your Honor, it said “Fine for Parking”
(fine: a. 好的; b. 罚款)
定义：A rhetorical figure in which incongruous or contradictory terms are combined
例子：1.The coach had to be cruel to be kind to his trainees.
2.She read the long-awaited letter with a tearful smile.
定义：A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison.
例子：1.He has a heart of stone. 他有一颗铁石心肠
2.The diamond department was the heart and center of the store.
定义：A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect
例子：1.My heart almost stopped beating when I heard my girl friend’s voice on the phone.
2.She gave me the impression of having more teeth, white and large and even, than were necessary for any practical purpose.