雅思阅读标题对应题解题技巧!雅思阅读备考中雅思阅读标题对应题相信大家并不陌生,但是很多考生往往会在这部分丢失分数。下面智课网雅思频道小编为大家分享雅思阅读标题对应题解题技巧,供大家参考学习。

  标题题(List of Heading)

  List of Heading也就是我们大家熟悉的标题题了。这种题型是唯一一种出现在文章前面的题型。而且,这种题是一种考察文章大意的题型而不是细节题。标题题由两部分组成,一部分是选项,另外一部分是一个段落编号,我们要做的也就是给每个段落找一个小标题。所对应的段落也分为两种情况,一种是所考察的section包含若干个小分段;另一种则只包含一个小段。

  标题题是一种高频题型,平均每两次考试会出现一次,有时甚至连续出现。然而,此种题型比较难,是乱序题,而且要求考生总结段落大意,对学生来说要求较高。

  List of Heading解题步骤

  划去选项中的例子,以及原文中例子所对应段落的序号这种题型有的时候会给例子,有的时候没有例子在剩余的选项中划取关键词关键词应尽量划取名词以及形容词注意是否有相似或相反的标题,若有则至少有一个会是正确答案扫读并总结文章所考查的每个section的中心思想重点看所考查小段的第一句,第二句和最后一句,划出主题句的关键词段落中间部分快速浏览即可对应两组关键词,以确定答案

  注意事项乱序性,即正确答案在原文中无顺序可言有简单有难,有的答案一目了然,有的答案却反复推敲都难以确认着重注意转折,并列等连接词适当运用排除法,越到最后就越要应用该法答案不会出现重复使用现象,每个选项只会使用一次做出一道题就划去一道题正确答案具有概括性与总结性干扰项一般是一些小细节,新概念段落高频词理论一段话中反复出现的名词或形容词当一个文章段落在10行以内时,出现2次及为高频词,当一个文章段落在11行以上时,出现3次即为高频词。

  例题

  PRACTICE PASSAGE List of Headings

  i Causes of volcanic eruption

  ii Efforts to predict volcanic eruption

  iii Volcanoes and the features of our planet

  iv Different types of volcanic eruption

  v International relief efforts

  vi The unpredictability of volcanic eruptions

  从上述6个选项中为Section A, B, C, D选择合适的heading.

  Volcanoes – earth-shattering news

  When Mount Pinatubo suddenly erupted on 9 June 1991, the power of volcanoes past and present again hit the headlines

  A Volcanoes are the ultimate earth-moving machinery. A violent eruption can blow the top few kilometres off a mountain, scatter fine ash practically all over the globe and hurt rock fragments into the stratosphere to darken the skies a continent away.

  But the classic eruption – cone-shaped mountain, big bang, mushroom cloud and surges of molten lava – is only a tiny part of a global story. Volcanism, the name given to volcanic processes, really has shaped the world. Eruptions have rifted continents, raised mountain chains, constructed islands and shaped the topography of the earth. The entire ocean floor has a basement of volcanic basalt.

  Volcanoes have not only made the continents, they are also thought to have made the world’s first stable atmosphere and provided all the water for the oceans, rivers and ice-caps. There are now about 600 active volcanoes. Every year they add two or three cubic kilometres of rock to the continents. Imagine a similar number of volcanoes smoking away for the last 3,500 million years. That is enough rock to explain the continental crust.

  What comes out of volcanic craters is mostly gas. More than 90% of this gas is water vapour from the deep earth: enough to explain, over 3,500 million years, the water in the oceans. The rest of the gas is nitrogen, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, methane, ammonia and hydrogen. The quantity of these gases, again multiplied over 3,500 million years, is enough to explain the mass of the world’s atmosphere. We are alive because volcanoes provided the soil, air and water we need.

  B Geologists consider the earth as having a molten core, surrounded by a semi-molten mantle

  and a brittle, outer skin. It helps to think of a soft-boiled egg with a runny yolk, a firm but squishy white and a hard shell. If the shell is even slightly cracked during boiling, the white material bubbles out and sets like a tiny mountain chain over the crack – like an archipelago of volcanic islands such as the Hawaiian Islands. But the earth is so much bigger and the mantle below is so much halter.

  Even though the mantle rocks are kept solid by overlying pressure, they can still slowly ‘flow’ like thick treacle. The flow, thought to be in the form of convection currents, is powerful enough to fracture the ‘eggshell’ of the crust into plates, and keep them bumping and grinding against each other, or even overlapping, at the rate of a few centimetres a year. These fracture zones, where the collisions occur, are where earthquakes happen. And, very often, volcanoes.

  C These zones are lines of weakness, or hot spots. Every eruption is different, but put at its simplest, where there are weaknesses, rocks deep in the mantle, heated to 1,350oC, will start to expand and rise. As they do so, the pressure drops, and they expand and become liquid and rise more swiftly.

  Sometimes it is slow: vast bubbles of magma – molten rock from the mantle – inch towards the surface, cooling slowly, to show through as granite extrusions (as on Skye, or the Great Whin Sill, the lava dyke squeezed out like toothpaste that carries part of Hadrian’s Wall in northern England). Sometimes – as in Northern Ireland, Wales and the Karoo in South Africa – the magma rose faster, and then flowed out horizontally on to the surface in vast thick sheets. In the Deccan plateau in western India, there are more than two million cubic kilometres of lava, some of it 2,400 metres thick, formed over 500,000 years of slurping eruption.

  Sometimes the magma moves very swiftly indeed. It does not have time to cool as it surges upwards. The gases trapped inside the boiling rock expand suddenly, the lava glows with heat, it begins to froth, and it explodes with tremendous force. Then the slightly cooler lava following it begins to flow over the lip of the crater. It happens on Mars, it happened on the moon, it even happens on some of the moons of Jupiter and Uranus. By studying the evidence, volcanologists can read the force of the great blasts of the past. Is the pumice light and full of holes? The explosion was tremendous. Are the rocks heavy, with huge crystalline basalt shapes, like the Giant’s Causeway in Northern Ireland? It was a slow, gentle eruption.

  The biggest eruption are deep on the mid-ocean floor, where new lava is forcing the continents apart and widening the Atlantic by perhaps five centimetres a year. Look at maps of volcanoes, earthquakes and island chains like the Philippines and Japan, and you can see the rough outlines of what are called tectonic plates – the plates which make up the earth’s crust and mantle. The most dramatic of these is the Pacific ‘ring of fire’ where there have the most violent explosions – Mount Pinatubo near Manila, Mount St Helen’s in the Rockies and El Chichón in Mexico about a decade ago, not to mention world-shaking blasts like Krakatoa in the Sunda Straits in 1883.

  D But volcanoes are not very predictable. That is because geological time is not like human time. During quiet periods, volcanoes cap themselves with their own lava by forming a powerful cone from the molten rocks slopping over the rim of the crater; later the lava cools slowly into a huge, hard, stable plug which blocks any further eruption until the pressure below becomes irresistible. In the case of Mount Pinatubo, this took 600 years.

  Then, sometimes, with only a small warning, the mountain blows its top. It did this at Mont Pelée in Martinique at 7.49 a.m. on 8 May, 1902. Of a town of 28,000, only two people survived. In 1815, a sudden blast removed the top 1,280 metres of Mount Tambora in Indonesia. The eruption was so fierce that dust thrown into the stratosphere darkened the skies, canceling the following summer in Europe and North America. Thousands starved as the harvest failed, after snow in June and frosts in August. Volcanoes are potentially world news, especially the quiet ones.

  试题解析:

  首先,本题没有给出例子,考生需要提前判定的就是明确有几个干扰项,即有多少个选项是用不上的。通过分析,可以得出本题有四个题目,6个选项,也就是说有2个干扰项。

  其次,通过分析所有的选项,我们可以发现几乎每个选项都含有相同的表达“volcanic eruption”,正好符合文章的标题。这样的词或词组应该是文章的主题,会在文章各个段落中反复出现,就不太适合作为各个section的关键词。那么每个section在判定时就应该以其他词作为重要关键词。本题中每一个选项的合适关键词如下:

  i Causes of volcanic eruption

  ii Efforts to predict volcanic eruption

  iii Volcanoes and the features of our planet

  iv Different types of volcanic eruption

  v International relief efforts

  vi The unpredictability of volcanic eruptions

  再次,通过划取选项关键词,可以发现几个实用的特色:

  第一个选项含有causes,也就是表达原因之意。根据雅思文章的行文结构特色,文章的中部段落倾向于分析原因。这样,考生可以大致预测该选项倾向于文章的中部段落。

  第二个选项含有predict,最后一个选项含有unpredictability, 两个选项构成了相反关系,说明这两个选项中至少有一个为正确答案。这种类型的选项出题方式在雅思标题题中非常常见,因此考生在做题时应多观察是否有这样的特点。此外,predict和unpredictability都有预测的相关意思。根据雅思文章的行文结构特色,文章的尾部段落倾向于预测或展望未来。如此一来,考生可以大致预测这两个选项都倾向于文章的尾部段落。

  第三个选项侧重于我们的星球的特征,所谓我们的星球既是指地球,在回原文分析时要侧重看一看是否提到地球的一些特征。

  第四个选项侧重于不同种类的火山爆发。该选项属于高度总结概括的选项,倾向于正确答案。

  第五个选项意为国际救灾努力,需回原文关注是否提到这方面信息。

  接下来开始分析原文每一个section。考生应重点关注每个小段的首尾句,略读中间部分。只要有关键词对应,即能确认该section的小标题。同时也应注意观察是否有段落符合在分析选项时的预判。

  Section A

  雅思文章在行文上往往开门见山,也就是文章的开头段落往往直入主题,明确告诉读者文章的中心内容会讲什么。Section A包含四个小的分段,前两个小段是对volcano下了一个定义,告诉读者火山是什么。第三个小段,明确提出火山形成了陆地,空气和水。这三个元素明显涉及到地球的特征,尤其是水,现今仍几乎是所有已知星球中唯有地球有丰富储量的元素。因而,Section A所对应的小标题应该是iii。同时,考生应养成习惯,将所用过的选项划去。

  Section B

  这个section包含两个小段,虽然短,但用词比较生僻,词汇量较薄弱的考生尤其不易判定具体选择哪一个正确选项。考试中遇到这种情况,可暂时放下,本篇文章只有两个干扰项,并不算多。因此,在做完其他段落之后,拐回头用排除法再确定这个小段的合适选项,不失为一个合适的做题方法。

  该section首句提出地球有三个部分构成:地核,地幔和地壳。其后以半熟的鸡蛋为例分析了火山爆发的原理。鸡蛋正好也是由三个部分构成,蛋黄(对应地核),蛋白(对应地幔)以及蛋壳(对应地壳)。如果,鸡蛋壳破了,众所周知,蛋白就会流出来。同样原理,在地球板块碰撞的情况下,地壳也会破裂,地幔就会喷发出来,也就是火山爆发了。所以该段对应选项i。也符合对于选项i中含有cause的预判。

  Section C

  此section包含四个小段。在分析各个小段过程中,通过每个小段首句的分析,可以得出这四个小段是个并列关系的组合。第一小段首句承接上一段,得出这些区域是一些脆弱且炎热的地带。第二小段首句解释有时候它非常慢。考生可能会对it指代什么感到疑惑。但是在读到第三小段首句之后,就能理解了。第三小段首句指出有时候火山的熔岩移动的非常快。明显和上一段并列,也指出it指代的就是熔岩。最后一个小段指出最大的火山爆发发生在海底。由此对应剩余选项,考生可轻易发现iv为正确答案。也符合高度总结概括的选项倾向于答案的推定。

  Section D

  根据预判,最后一个section很有可能在ii和vi中决定。Section D首句即为一个转折词but。这类词后应做为重点来分析。考生可以很容易理解首句意思,火山不太能够被预测。再对应选项,最终vi应是正确答案。

  以上为雅思阅读标题对应题解题技巧分享,希望对大家有帮助,帮助大家早日攻克该类题型。


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