雅思阅读文章题目 The Grimme Fairy Tale
重复年份 20150704 20140313
27. N the Grimme brother knew they would gain international fame, the lasting fame would shock the Grimmes
28. NG the Grimmes were inforced to do work of their own secret
29. Y the sales of Fairy Tale in England was higher than in German
31. Y some parents still thought the Fiary Tale was not good for their children
32. N the fairy Tale author considered the man who made contribution to the story
of Cinderella as the original model
33. A the flowering of children literature level in 1800s
34. A illustration the change of Fairy Tale in order to match with the modern times
(refining & resoftening)
36. D another contributor of the Fiary Tale in Italy
37. F the reason why some people think the Fairy Tale belongs to German
38. H some violent stories
重复年份 20150711 20120712 20100211 20071020 20070303
雅思阅读题型 小标题6+段落细节配对 5+选择3
Gestures have been studied throughout the centuries from different perspectivesDuring the Roman Empire, Quintilian studied in his Institution Oratoria how gesture may be used in rhetorical discourse. Another broad study of gesture was published by Englishman John Bulwer in 1644. Bulwer analyzed dozens of gestures and provided a guide on how to use gestures to increase eloquence and clarity for public speaking.] Andrea De Jorio published an extensive account of gestural expression in 1832. A peer reviewed journal Gesturehas been published since 2001 and was founded by Adam Kendon and Cornelia Müller. The International Society for Gesture Studies (ISGS) was founded in 2002.
Gesture has frequently been taken up by researchers in the field of dance studies and performance studies in ways that emphasize the ways they are culturally and contextually inflected. Performance scholar, Carrie Noland, describes gestures as "learned techniques of the body" and stresses the way gestures are embodied corporeal forms of cultural communication. But rather than just residing within one cultural context, she describes how gesture migrate across bodies and locations to create new cultural meanings and associations. She also posits how they might function as a form of "resistance to homogenization" because they are so dependent on the specificities of the bodies that perform them.
Gesture has also been taken up within queer theory, ethnic studies and their intersections in performance studies, as a way to think about how the moving body gains social meaning. José Esteban Muñoz uses the idea of gesture to mark a kind of refusal of finitude and certainty and links gesture to his ideas of ephemera. Muñoz specifically draws on the African-American dancer and drag queen performerKevin Aviance to articulate his interest not in what queer gestures might mean, but what they might perform. Juana María Rodríguez borrows ideas of phenomenology and draws on Noland and Muñoz to investigate how gesture functions in queer sexual practices as a way to rewrite gender and negotiate power relations. She also connects gesture to Giorgio Agamben's idea of "means without ends" to think about political projects of social justice that are incomplete, partial, and legibile within culturally and socially defined spheres of meaning.
Within the field of linguistics, the most hotly contested aspect of gesture revolves around the subcategory of Lexical or Iconic Co-Speech Gestures. Adam Kendon was the first linguist to hypothesize on their purpose when he argued that Lexical gestures do work to amplify or modulate the lexico-semantic content of the verbal speech with which they co-occur. However, since the late 1990s, most research has revolved around the contrasting hypothesis that Lexical gestures serve a primarily cognitive purpose in aiding the process of speech production As of 2012, there is research to suggest that Lexical Gesture does indeed serve a primarily communicative purpose and cognitive only secondary, but in the realm of socio-pragmatic communication, rather than lexico-semantic modification.
雅思阅读文章题目 Dust and American
重复年份 20150801 20130718 20080214
1.The dust had shot up dramatically since the second half of 19 century True
2.The Aztec civilization disappeared due to the dust in the atmospheres false
3.Before people bringing castles southwest has a lot of basins in great plain false
4. Basins 'number decrease since European settlers found them are easy to be hunt not given
5. Railway building used more money than expected not given
6. &&&hand railway company work hard to protect the land they own false
7. Until today the land belongs to company still infertile. True
1930s law. Limit 8 cattle herbs
Today BF research where the dust comes from ? China?
Analysis components and 9 size From southwest
BN soil cannot be destroyed by high 10 wind
Soil can be destroyed by cattle hooks
Analyzing 11 lake sediments
Discover. 12 nutrients
Dust cannot be blamed for gradual disappearance of. Snow and 13 glaciers
雅思阅读文章题目 Australia Parrots
重复年份 20150919 20140802 20120209 20090627 20080821
文章大意 本文主要讲了澳洲鹦鹉Australia Parrots 在澳洲数量繁多的原因和各种特点习性的分析。在适应环境的过程中，有的鹦鹉灭绝了。
14.one example of one parrot species survive from the change of environment. D
20. parrot 都分布在哪些地区?C .in the continent which split up.
21. 关于 parrot beaks 哪一项是对的?D
22. nesting 的确定是什么?D
23. one-sixth in Australia
24. as easy as 16th century
25. mapmaker cartographer
雅思阅读文章题目 The tuatara-past and future
重复年份 20151024 20141018 20120331
Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand. Although resembling most lizards, they are part of a distinct lineage, the order Rhynchocephalia. Their name derives from the Māori language, and means "peaks on the back" The single species of tuatara is the only surviving member of its order, which flourished around 200 million years ago. Their most recent common ancestor with any other extant group is with the squamates (lizards and snakes). For this reason, tuatara are of great interest in the study of the evolution of lizards and snakes, and for the reconstruction of the appearance and habits of the earliest diapsids, a group of amniote tetrapods that also includes dinosaurs, birds, and crocodilians.
Tuatara are greenish brown and grey, and measure up to 80 cm (31 in) from head to tail-tip and weigh up to 1.3 kg (2.9 lb) with a spiny crest along the back, especially pronounced in males. Their dentition, in which two rows of teeth in the upper jaw overlap one row on the lower jaw, is unique among living species. They are even more unusual in having a pronounced photoreceptive eye, the "third eye", which is thought to be involved in setting circadian and seasonal cycles. They are able to hear, although no external ear is present, and have a number of unique features in their skeleton, some of them apparently evolutionarily retained from fish. Although tuatara are sometimes called "living fossils", recent anatomical work has shown that they have changed significantly since the Mesozoic era. While mapping its genome, researchers have discovered that the species has between five and six billion base pairs of DNA sequence.
The tuatara Sphenodon punctatus has been protected by law since 1895. A second species, S. guntheri, was recognised in 1989 but since 2009 its use has been discontinued. Tuatara, like many of New Zealand's native animals, are threatened by habitat loss and introduced predators, such as the Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans). They were extinct on the mainland, with the remaining populations confined to 32 offshore islands, until the first mainland release into the heavily fenced and monitored Karori Sanctuary in 2005.
During routine maintenance work at Karori Sanctuary in late 2008, a tuatara nest was uncovered, with a hatchling found the following autumn. This is thought to be the first case of tuatara successfully breeding on the New Zealand mainland in over 200 years, outside of captive rearing facilities.
雅思阅读文章题目 The meaning of history study
重复年份 20151114A 20140920 20111210
The purpose of historical inquiry is not simply to present facts but to search for an interpretation of the past. Historians attempt to find patterns and establish meaning through the rigorous study of documents and artifacts left by people of other times and other places.
The study of history is vital to a liberal arts education. History is unique among the liberal arts in its emphasis on historical perspective and context. Historians insist that the past must be understood on its own terms; any historical phenomenon--an event, an idea, a law, or a dogma for example--must first be understood in its context, as part of a web of interrelated institutions, values, and beliefs that define a particular culture and era. Among the liberal arts, history is the discipline most concerned with understanding change. Historians seek not only to explain historical causality--how and why change occurs within societies and cultures. They also try to account for the endurance of tradition, understand the complex interplay between continuity and change, and explain the origins, evolution, and decline of institutions and ideas. History is also distinguished by its singularly broad scope. Virtually every subject has a history and can be analyzed and interpreted in historical perspective and context; the scope of historical inquiry is bound only by the quantity and quality of surviving documents and artifacts.
It is commonly acknowledged that an understanding of the past is fundamental to an understanding of the present. The analysis and interpretation of history provide an essential context for evaluating contemporary institutions, politics, and cultures. Understanding the present configuration of society is not the only reason to study the past; history also provides unique insight into human nature and human civilization. By demanding that we see the world through the eyes of others, that we develop a sense of context and coherence while recognizing complexity and ambiguity, and that we confront the record not only of human achievement but also of human failure, cruelty, and barbarity, the study of history provides us with a richly-textured, substantive framework for understanding the human condition and grappling with moral questions and problems. History is essential to the traditional objectives of the liberal arts, the quest for wisdom and virtue.
There is another reason to study history: it's fun. History combines the excitement of exploration and discovery with the sense of reward born of successfully confronting and making sense of complex and challenging problems.
雅思阅读文章题目 Birds intelligence
重复年份 20151114A 20130525 20111210
第一段：之前一直认为只有人类是高智能，现在发现惺惺甚至鸟都有 Reviewing common belief ;
第二段：举三种鸟的例子 examples of different species of birds' intelligence
第三段：. 鸟的生存环境残酷，鸟也有竞争 Link between capacity of using tool and survival
第四段：脑大的鸟更聪明 physio... evidence of birds' intelligence
第五段：鸟的社会性 Link between cognitive ability and communal performance
第六段：white whig什么鸟的幼鸟如何对待雏鸟 how birds trick on others(不确定)
三种鸟分别有两个 white whig 那个什么鸟。
1. 用工具砸开食物的covering shell。
2. 还有最后一个选项 observer那个，有人观察的时候幼鸟才会给雏鸟梳理羽毛kate 鸟。
3. 会用诱饵捕鱼 bait选项
雅思阅读文章题目 Japan's ancient pottery
重复年份 20151119B 20140201 20120707 20110217
Japanese pottery and porcelain , is one of the country's oldest art forms, dating back to the Neolithic period. Kilns haveproducedearthenware, pottery, stoneware, glazed pottery, glazed stoneware, porcelain, and blue-and-white ware. Japan has an exceptionally long and successful history of ceramic production. Earthenwares were created as early as the Jōmon period (10,000-300 BCE), giving Japan one of the oldest ceramic traditions in the world. Japan is further distinguished by the unusual esteem that ceramics holds within its artistic tradition, owing to the enduring popularity of the tea ceremony.
Japanese ceramic history records distinguished many potter names, and some were artist-potters, e.g. Honami Koetsu, Ogata Kenzan, and Aoki Mokubei Japanese anagama kilns also have flourished through the ages, and their influence weighs with that of the potters. Another characteristically Japanese aspect of the art is the continuing popularity of unglazed high-fired stoneware even after porcelain became popular. Since the 4th century, Japanese ceramics have often been influenced byChinese and Korean pottery. Japan transformed and translated the Chinese and Korean prototypes into a uniquely Japanese creation, and the result was distinctly Japanese in character. Since the mid-17th century when Japan started to industrialize high-quality standard wares produced in factories became popular exports to Europe. In the 20th century, a modern ceramics industry (e.g.,Noritake and Toto Ltd.) grew up.
Japanese pottery is distinguished by two polarised aesthetic traditions. On the one hand, there is a tradition of very simple and roughly finished pottery, mostly in earthenware and using a muted palette of earth colours. This relates to Zen Buddhism and many of the greatest masters were priests, especially in early periods. Many pieces are also related to the Japanese tea ceremony and embody the aesthetic principles of wabi-sabi ("austerity-rust/patina"). Most raku ware, where the final decoration is partly random, is in this tradition… The other tradition is of highly finished and brightly coloured factory wares, mostly in porcelain, with complex and balanced decoration, which develops Chinese porcelain styles in a distinct way. A third tradition, of simple but perfectly formed and glazed stonewares, also relates more closely to both Chinese and Korean traditions. In the 16th century, a number of styles of traditional utilitarian rustic wares then in production became admired for their simplicity, and their forms have often been kept in production to the present day for a collectors market.