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        点击》》了解高分雅思复习材料汇总【可下载】

  以下是智课网为大家分享的雅思阅读模拟试题,一起来了解一下吧。

  Obtaining Linguistic Data

  A Many procedures are available for obtaining data about a language. They range from a carefully planned, intensive field investigation in a foreign country to a casual introspection about one’s mother tongue carried out in an armchair at home.

  B In all cases, someone has to act as a source of language data — an informant. Informants are (ideally) native speakers of a language, who provide utterances for analysis and other kinds of information about the language (e.g. translations, comments about correctness, or judgements on usage). Often, when studying their mother tongue, linguists act as their own informants, judging the ambiguity, acceptability, or other properties of utterances against their own intuitions. The convenience of this approach makes it widely used, and it is considered the norm in the generative approach to linguistics. But a linguist’s personal judgements are often uncertain, or disagree with the judgements of other linguists, at which point recourse is needed to more objective methods of enquiry, using non-linguists as informants. The latter procedure is unavoidable when working on foreign languages, or child speech.

  C Many factors must be considered when selecting informants — whether one is working with single speakers (a common situation when languages have not been described before), two people interacting, small groups or large-scale samples. Age, sex, social background and other aspects of identity are important, as these factors are known to influence the kind of language used. The topic of conversation and the characteristics of the social setting (e.g. the level of formality) are also highly relevant, as are the personal qualities of the informants (e.g. their fluency and consistency). For larger studies, scrupulous attention has been paid to the sampling theory employed, and in all cases, decisions have to be made about the best investigative techniques to use.

  D Today, researchers often tape-record informants. This enables the linguist’s claims about the language to be checked, and provides a way of making those claims more accurate (‘difficult’ pieces of speech can be listened to repeatedly). But obtaining naturalistic, good-quality data is never easy. People talk abnormally when they know they are being recorded, and sound quality can be poor. A variety of tape-recording procedures have thus been devised to minimise the ‘observer’s paradox’ (how to observe the way people behave when they are not being observed). Some recordings are made without the speakers being aware of the fact — a procedure that obtains very natural data, though ethical objections must be anticipated. Alternatively, attempts can be made to make the speaker forget about the recording, such as keeping the tape recorder out of sight, or using radio microphones. A useful technique is to introduce a topic that quickly involves the speaker, and stimulates a natural language style (e.g. asking older informants about how times have changed in their locality).

  E An audio tape recording does not solve all the linguist’s problems, however. Speech is often unclear and ambiguous. Where possible, therefore, the recording has to be supplemented by the observer’s written comments on the non-verbal behaviour of the participants, and about the context in general. A facial expression, for example, can dramatically alter the meaning of what is said. Video recordings avoid these problems to a large extent, but even they have limitations (the camera cannot be everywhere), and transcriptions always benefit from any additional commentary provided by an observer.

  F Linguists also make great use of structured sessions, in which they systematically ask their informants for utterances that describe certain actions, objects or behaviours. With a bilingual informant, or through use of an interpreter, it is possible to use translation techniques (‘How do you say table in your language?’). A large number of points can be covered in a short time, using interview worksheets and questionnaires. Often, the researcher wishes to obtain information about just a single variable, in which case a restricted set of questions may be used: a particular feature of pronunciation, for example, can be elicited by asking the informant to say a restricted set of words. There are also several direct methods of elicitation, such as asking informants to fill in the blanks in a substitution frame (e.g. I___ see a car), or feeding them the wrong stimulus for correction (‘Is it possible to say I no can see?’).

        点击》》了解高分雅思复习材料汇总【可下载】

  G A representative sample of language, compiled for the purpose of linguistic analysis, is known as a corpus. A corpus enables the linguist to make unbiased statements about frequency of usage, and it provides accessible data for the use of different researchers. Its range and size are variable. Some corpora attempt to cover the language as a whole, taking extracts from many kinds of text; others are extremely selective, providing a collection of material that deals only with a particular linguistic feature. The size of the corpus depends on practical factors, such as the time available to collect, process and store the data: it can take up to several hours to provide an accurate transcription of a few minutes of speech. Sometimes a small sample of data will be enough to decide a linguistic hypothesis; by contrast, corpora in major research projects can total millions of words. An important principle is that all corpora, whatever their size, are inevitably limited in their coverage, and always need to be supplemented by data derived from the intuitions of native speakers of the language, through either introspection or experimentation.

  Questions 27-31

  Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs labeled A-G.

  Which paragraph contains the following information?

  Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.

  NB You may use any letter more than once.

  27 the effect of recording on the way people talk

  28 the importance of taking notes on body language

  29 the fact that language is influenced by social situation

  30 how informants can be helped to be less self-conscious

  31 various methods that can be used to generate specific data

  Questions 32-36

  Complete the table below.

  Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 32-36 on your answer sheet.

  METHODS OF OBTAINING LINGUISTIC DATA ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

  32……as informant convenient method of enquiry not objective enough

  Non-linguist as informant necessary with 33…… and child speech the number of factors to be considered

  Recording an informant allows linguists’ claims to be checked 34……of sound

  Videoing an informant allows speakers’ 35…… to be observed 36……might miss certain things

  Questions 37-40

  Complete the summary of paragraph G below.

  Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.

        点击》》了解高分雅思复习材料汇总【可下载】

  A linguist can use a corpus to comment objectively on 37…… . Some corpora include a wide range of language while others are used to focus on a 38…… . The length of time the process takes will affect the 39…… of the corpus. No corpus can ever cover the whole language and so linguists often find themselves relying on the additional information that can be gained from the 40…… of those who speak the language concerned.

  以下是智课网为大家整理的雅思阅读模拟试题的答案解析,一起来了解一下。

  Question 27

  答案:D

  关键词:recording

  定位原文:D段首句“Today, researchers often tape-record informants.”

  解题思路:题干问的刚好是哪一段讲到了录音对人们谈话方式的影响。故答案是D。

  Question 28

  答案:E

  关键词:body language

  定位原文:E段第3句“Where possible, therefore, the recording has to be supplemented by the observer's written comments on the non-verbal behavior of the participants,...”

  解题思路:题干问的是哪一段讲到了记录人们肢体语言的重要性。故答案是E。

  Question 29

  答案:C

  关键词:social situation

  定位原文:C段第2句“Age, sex,social background and other aspects of identity are important, as these factors are known to influence the kind of language used.”

  解题思路:题目问的是哪段提到了语言受到社会背景的影响。故答案是C。

  Question 30

  答案:D

  关键词:self-conscious

  定位原文:D段第6句“Some recordings are made without speakers being aware of the fact — a procedure that obtains very natural data,...”

  解题思路:题目问的是哪一段提到了如何帮助资料提供者变得自然一点。故答案是D。

  Question 31

  答案:F

  关键词:specific data various methods

  定位原文:F段第3句和最后一句“A large number of points can be covered in a short time, using interview work-sheets and questionnaires.”

  “There are also several direct methods of elicitation,…”

  解题思路:题目问的是哪段提到了产生详细信息的不同方式。答案是F。

  Question 32

  答案: (the) linguists (acts)/(the) linguist (act)

  关键词:convenient/not objective enough

  定位原文:B段倒数第2句“Often, when studying their mother tongue, linguists act as their own informants, judging the ambiguity, acceptability, or other properties of utterances against their own intuitions. The convenience of this approach makes it widely used, and it is considered the norm in the generative approach to linguistics.”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息可知答案为linguists act。

  Question 33

  答案:foreign languages

  关键词:non-linguist

  定位原文:B段最后两句:…at which point recourse is needed to more objective methods of enquiry, using non-linguists as informants. The latter procedure is unavoidable when working on foreign languages, or child speech.

  解题思路:根据定位句信息可知答案为foreign languages。

  Question 34

  答案:(the) (poor) quality

        点击》》了解高分雅思复习材料汇总【可下载】

  关键词:recording/sound

  定位原文:D段第3-4句“But obtaining naturalistic, good-quality data is never easy. People talk abnor?mally when they know they are being recorded, and sound quality can be poor. ”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息可知答案为(the)(poor)quality。

  Question 35

  答案:facial expression

  关键词:video/speaker

  定位原文:E段第4句“A facial expression, for example, can dramatically alter the meaning of what is said.”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息可知答案为facial expression。

  Question 36

  答案:video recording/camera/video camera/recording

  关键词:video/miss certain things

  定位原文:E段最后一句“Video recording avoid these problems to a large extent, but even they have limitations (the camera cannot be everywhere), and transcriptions always bene?fit from any additional commentary provided by an observer.”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息可知答案为video recording/camera/video camera/recording。

  Question 37

  答案:fre?quency of usage

  关键词:comment

  定位原文:G段第2句“A corpus enables the linguists to make unbiased statements about fre?quency of usage,...”

  解题思路:这里的make unbiased statements about和题干中的comment objectively on是同义替换,故正确答案为fre?quency of usage。

  Question 38

  答案:particular linguistic feature

  关键词:while/focus on

  定位原文:G段第4句“Some corpora attempt to cover the language as a whole, taking extracts from many kinds of text; others are extremely selective, providing a collection of material that deals only with a particular linguistic feature.”

  解题思路deals only with和focus on在这里是同义替换,故正确答案为particular linguistic feature。

  Question 39

  答案:size

  关键词:length of time

  定位原文:The size of the corpus depends on practical factors, such as the time available to collect, process and store the data.

  解题思路:corpus的size取决于很多因素,例如时间等,所以题干中时间的长短会影响的应该是corpus的size。

  Question 40

  答案:intuitions

  关键词:those who speak

  定位原文:G段最后一句“An important principle is that all corpora, whatever their size,are inevitably limited in their coverage, and always need to be supplemented by data de?rived from the intuitions of native speakers of the language, through either introspection or experimentation.”

  解题思路:根据定位信息,可知正确答案为intuitions。

  以上是智课网为大家整理的雅思阅读模拟试题及答案解析,希望能够对大家进行雅思备考有帮助。

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