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        点击》》了解2017年雅思阅读真题及答案汇总

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  What Do Whales Feel?

  An examination of the functioning of the senses in cetaceans, the group of mammals comprising whales, dolphins and porpoises

  Some of the senses that we and other terrestrial mammals take for granted are either reduced or absent in cetaceans or fail to function well in water. For example, it appears from their brain structure that toothed species are unable to smell. Baleen species, on the other hand, appear to have some related brain structures but it is not known whether these are functional. It has been speculated that, as the blowholes evolved and migrated to the top of the head, the neural pathways serving sense of smell may have been nearly all sacrificed. Similarly, although at least some cetaceans have taste buds, the nerves serving these have degenerated or are rudimentary.

  The sense of touch has sometimes been described as weak too, but this view is probably mistaken. Trainers of captive dolphins and small whales often remark on their animals’ responsiveness to being touched or rubbed, and both captive and free-ranging cetacean individuals of all species (particularly adults and calves, or members of the same subgroup) appear to make frequent contact. This contact may help to maintain order within a group, and stroking or touching are part of the courtship ritual in most species. The area around the blowhole is also particularly sensitive and captive animals often object strongly to being touched there.

  The sense of vision is developed to different degree in different species. Baleen species studied at close quarters underwater — specifically a grey whale calf in captivity for a year, and free-ranging right whale and humpback whales studied and filmed off Argentina and Hawaii — have obviously tracked objects with vision underwater, and they can apparently see moderately well both in water and in air. However, the position of the eyes so restricts the field of vision in baleen whales that they probably do not have stereoscopic vision.

  On the other hand, the position of the eyes in most dolphins and porpoises suggests that they have stereoscopic vision forward and downward. Eye position in freshwater dolphins, which often swim on their side or upside down while feeding, suggests that what vision they have is stereoscopic forward and upward. By comparison, the bottlenose dolphin has extremely keen vision in water. Judging from the way it watches and tracks airborne flying fish, it can apparently see fairly well through the air-water interface as well. And although preliminary experimental evidence suggests that their in-air vision is poor, the accuracy with which dolphins leap high to take small fish out of a trainer’s hand provides anecdotal evidence to the contrary.

  Such variation can no doubt be explained with reference to the habitats in which individual species have developed. For example, vision is obviously more useful to species inhabiting clear open waters than to those living in turbid rivers and flooded plains. The South American boutu and Chinese Beiji, for instance, appear to have very limited vision, and the Indian susus are blind, their eyes reduced to slits that probably allow them to sense only the direction and intensity of light.

  Although the senses of taste and smell appear to have deteriorated, and vision in water appears to be uncertain, such weaknesses are more than compensated for by cetaceans’ well-developed acoustic sense. Most species are highly vocal, although they vary in the range of sounds they produce, and many forage for food using echolocation1. Large baleen whales primarily use the lower frequencies and are often limited in their repertoire. Notable exceptions are the nearly song-like choruses of bowhead whales in summer and the complex, haunting utterances of the humpback whales. Toothed species in general employ more of the frequency spectrum, and produce a wider variety of sounds, than baleen species (though the sperm whale apparently produces a monotonous series of high-energy clicks and little else). Some of the more complicated sounds are clearly communicative, although what role they may play in the social life and ‘culture’ of cetaceans has been more the subject of wild speculation than of solid science.

  1. echolocation: the perception of objects by means of sound wave echoes.

  Questions 15-21

  Complete the table below.

  Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading Passage 2 for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 15-21 on your answer sheet.

  SENSE SPECIES ABILITY COMMENTS

  Smell toothed no evidence from brain structure

  baleen not certain related brain structures are present

  Taste some types poor nerves linked to their 15………are underdeveloped

  Touch all yes region around the blowhole very sensitive

        点击》》了解2017年雅思阅读真题及答案汇总

        点击》》了解剑桥雅思阅读4-11原文+译文+解析

  Vision 16……… yes probably do not have stereoscopic vision

  Dolphins, porpoises yes probably have stereoscopic vision 17………and………

  18………

  yes probably have stereoscopic vision forward and upward

  Bottlenose dolphins yes exceptional in 19………and good in air-water interface

  Boutu and beiji poor have limited vision

  Indian susu no probably only sense direction and intensity of light

  Hearing most large baleen yes usually use 20………; repertoire limited

  21………whales and ………whales

  yes song-like

  Toothed yes use more of frequency spectrum; have wider repertoire

  Questions 22-26

  Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet.

  22 Which of the senses is described here as being involved in mating?

  23 What species swims upside down while eating?

  24 What can bottlenose dolphins follow from under the water?

  25 Which type of habitat is related to good visual ability?

  26 Which of the senses is best developed in cetaceans?

  下面是阅读雅思测试题目的答案解析,一起来了解一下:

  Question 15

  答案:taste buds

  关键词:taste

  定位原文:第1段第5句“Similarly, although at least some cetaceans have taste buds, the nerves serving these have degenerated or are rudimentary.”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息,可知答案是taste buds。

  Question 16

  答案:baleen whales

  关键词:stereoscopic vision

  定位原文:第3段第3句“However,the position of the eyes so restricts the field of vision in baleen whales that they probably do not have stereoscopic vision.”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息,可知答案是baleen whales。

  Question 17

  答案:forward downward (IN EITHER ORDER)

  关键词:Dolphins, porpoises

  定位原文:第4段第1句“On the other hand, the position of the eyes in most dolphins and porpoises suggests that they have stereoscopic vision forward and downward.”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息,可知答案是forward和downward。

  Question 18

  答案:(the) freshwater dolphin(s)

  关键词:forward and upward

  定位原文:第4段第2句“Eye position in freshwater dolphins, which often swim on their side or upside down while feeding, suggests that what vision they have is stereoscopic forward and upward.”

  解题思路:根据关键词定位,可知答案为freshwater dolphin(s)。

  Question 19

  答案:(the) water

  关键词:bottlenose dolphin

  定位原文:第4段第3句“By comparison, the bottlenose dolphin has extremely keen vision in water. Judging from the way it watches and tracks airborne flying fish, it can apparently see fairly well through the air-water inter?face as well.”

  解题思路:题干中的exceptional和文中的extremely是同义替换,所以根据定位句答案应该为water。

        点击》》了解2017年雅思阅读真题及答案汇总

        点击》》了解剑桥雅思阅读4-11原文+译文+解析

  Question 20

  答案:(the) lower frequencies

  关键词:most large baleen

  定位原文:第6段第3句“Large baleen whales primarily use the lower frequencies and are often limited in their repertoire.”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息,可知答案是(the) lower frequencies。

  Question 21

  答案:bowhead humpback (IN EITHER ORDER)

  关键词:song-like

  定位原文:第6段第4句“Notable exceptions are the nearly song-like choruses of bowhead whales in summer and the complex, haunting utterances of the humpback whales.”

  解题思路:根据song-like定位到该句话,可知答案为bowhead和humpback。

  Question 22

  答案:touch/sense of touch

  关键词:mating

  定位原文:第2段第3句“This contact may help to maintain order within a group, and stroking or touching are part of the courtship ritual in most species.”

  解题思路:这里的mating和文中的courtship ritual是同义替换,所以答案应为touch或者sense of touch。

  Question 23

  答案:freshwater dolphin(s)

  关键词:upside down/eating

  定位原文:第4段第2句“Eye position in freshwater dolphins, which often swim on their side or upside down while feeding...”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息,可知答案是freshwater dolphin(s)。

  Question 24

  答案:airborne flying fish

  关键词:follow/under the water

  定位原文:第4段第3句“By comparison, the bottlenose dolphin has extremely keen vision in water. Judging from the way it watches and tracks airborne flying fish, it can apparently see fairly well through the air-water interface as well.”

  解题思路:题目中的“follow”和文中的“tracks”是同义替换,根据定位句信息,可知答案是airborne flying fish。

  Question 25

  答案:clear water(s)/clear open water(s)

  关键词:habitat/good visual ability

  定位原文:第5段第句“For example, vision is obviously more useful to species inhabiting clear open waters than to those living in turbid rivers and flooded plains.”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息,可知答案是clear open water(s)。

  Question 26

  答案:(the) acoustic sense

  关键词:best/cetaceans

  定位原文:第6段第1句“Although the senses of taste and smell appear to have deteriorated, and vision in water appears to be uncertain, such weaknesses are more than compensated for by cetaceans’ well-developed acoustic sense.”

  解题思路:根据定位句信息,可知答案是acoustic sense。

  以上是智课网为大家分享的阅读雅思试题测试题目及答案,希望能够对大家检测自己的雅思阅读备考水平有帮助。

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