2017年3月30日雅思阅读预测重点阅读题目如下：地图发展史;某种松树，郁金香，科幻小说,鸟类的智慧，天才儿童，Power and Space，录音发展史;左右手成因;过山车，失落城市;新手与专家;性格与人际关系;双胞胎研究;体育赛事与兴奋;鳄鱼;茶的历史与发展;苏梅克9号慧星;科幻小说;在逆境中激励员工挑战
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27, which are based on Reading Passage 2 on the following pages.
Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points.
Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-viii, in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i Ensure the reward system is fair
ii Match rewards to individuals
iii Ensure targets are realistic
iv Link rewards to achievement
v Encourage managers to take more responsibility
vi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time
vii Establish targets and give feedback
viii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs
Key Point One Viii
14 Key Point Two
15 Key Point Three
16 Key Point Four
17 Key Point Five
18 Key Point Six
Motivating Employees under
It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organisation than a declining one. When organisations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay rises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organisation create feelings of optimism. Management is able to use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organisation is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organisation can least afford to lose — those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited.
Morale also suffers during decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumours and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions. The ways of meeting this challenge can be broadly divided into six Key Points, which are outlined below.
KEY POINT ONE
There is an abundance of evidence to support the motivational benefits that result from carefully matching people to jobs. For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business, high achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organisation, a candidate who has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation should be selected. Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that are inconsistent with their needs. High achievers will do best when the job provides moderately challenging goals and where there is independence and feedback. However, it should be remembered that not everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in independence, variety and responsibility.
KEY POINT TWO
The literature on goal-setting theory suggests that managers should ensure that all employees have specific goals and receive comments on how well they are doing in those goals. For those with high achievement needs, typically a minority in any organisation, the existence of external goals is less important because high achievers are already internally motivated. The next factor to be determined is whether the goals should be assigned by a manager or collectively set in conjunction with the employees. The answer to that depends on perceptions of goal acceptance and the organisation’s culture. If resistance to goals is expected, the use of participation in goal-setting should increase acceptance. If participation is inconsistent with the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the participation process as manipulative and be negatively affected by it.
KEY POINT THREE
Regardless of whether goals are achievable or well within management’s perceptions of the employee’s ability, if employees see them as unachievable they will reduce their effort. Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.
KEY POINT FOUR
Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge of each employee to personalise the rewards over which they have control. Some of the more obvious rewards that managers allocate include pay, promotions, autonomy, job scope and depth, and the opportunity to participate in goal-setting and decision-making.
KEY POINT FIVE
Managers need to make rewards contingent on performance. To reward factors other than performance will only reinforce those other factors. Key rewards such as pay increases and promotions or advancements should be allocated for the attainment of the employee’s specific goals. Consistent with maximising the impact of rewards, managers should look for ways to increase their visibility. Eliminating the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating everyone’s remuneration, publicising performance bonuses and allocating annual salary increases in a lump sum rather than spreading them out over an entire year are examples of actions that will make rewards more visible and potentially more motivating.
KEY POINT SIX
The way rewards are distributed should be transparent so that employees perceive that rewards or outcomes are equitable and equal to the inputs given. On a simplistic level, experience, abilities, effort and other obvious inputs should explain differences in pay, responsibility and other obvious outcomes. The problem, however, is complicated by the existence of dozens of inputs and outcomes and by the fact that employee groups place different degrees of importance on them. For instance, a study comparing clerical and production workers identified nearly twenty inputs and outcomes. The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list, but these were at the bottom of the production workers’ list. Similarly, production workers thought that the most important inputs were intelligence and personal involvement with task accomplishment, two factors that were quite low in the importance ratings of the clerks. There were also important, though less dramatic, differences on the outcome side. For example, production workers rated advancement very highly, whereas clerical workers rated advancement in the lower third of their list. Such findings suggest that one person’s equity is another’s inequity, so an ideal should probably weigh different inputs and outcomes according to employee group.
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 27?
In boxes 19-24 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
19 A shrinking organization tends to lose its less skilled employees rather than its more skilled employees.
20 It is easier to manage a small business than a large business.
21 High achievers are well suited to team work.
22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.
23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees.
24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.
Look at the following groups of workers (Questions 25-27) and the list of descriptions below.
Match each group with the correct description, A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 25-27 on your answer sheet.
25 high achievers
26 clerical workers
27 production workers
List of Descriptions
A They judge promotion to be important.
B They have less need of external goals.
C They think that the quality of their work is important.
D They resist goals which are imposed.
E They have limited job options.
定位原文: KEY POINT TWO 第1句“The literature on…”
解题思路: 定位句有两个关键词：specific goals和comments on...，分别与vii中的targets和feedback为同义表达转换。
定位原文：KEY POINT THREE 第1句“Regardless of whether…”
解题思路: 本段第一句强调必须让员工认为目标可以实现，可以实现的就是现实的，iii的ensure targets are realistic 就是这个意思。
定位原文: KEY POINT FOUR第2句“Managers could use…”
解题思路: 在其控制范围内，管理者可以根据对不同员工的了解来给予他们相应的奖励。这里关键是personalise the rewards (将奖励个性化)，即针对不同人给予不同奖励。也就是选项ii所说的 match rewards to individuals (将奖励与个人挂钩)。因此答案是ii。
定位原文: KEY POINT FIVE 第1句“Managers need to make rewards…”
解题思路: 管理者需要奖励与绩效挂钩; make...contingent on 就是将……联系起来，achievement与performance属于同义表达。
定位原文: KEY POINT SIX 第1句“The way rewards…” 奖励的分配方式必须透明，使员工认识到奖励或成果是公平并且与特定投人相对等的。
解题思路: reward system就是有关reward问题的集合，包括reward的分配方式，也就是原文中的The way rewards are distributed，而且 fair和 equitable 是同义词，都是“公平”的意思。所以答案是i。
定位原文: CHALLENGE部分的第4句“When an organisation is shrinking…”
答案： NOT GIVEN
关键词：small business/ large business
定位原文: KEY POINT ONE 的第2和3句“For example, if the job…”
解题思路: 全文只在这两句话中提到了small business和large business，由原文意思可见，作者并没有比较二者管理的难易度，所以对该题干句，应填NOT GIVEN。
定位原文: KEY POINT ONE 的最后两句“High achievers will…”
关键词：participate / goal-setting
定位原文: KEY POINT TWO 的最后1句“If participation and…”
解题思路: 如果参与机制与企业文化不一致，员工则有可能认为自己在参与过程中被操纵，并且受到负面影响。虽然题干没有写出这个“如果”的条件，但是用了some，相当于限定了范围。feel manipulated与perceive ...as manipulative是同一个意思。所以此题干与原文意思一致。
答案： NOT GIVEN
定位原文: KEY POINT THREE 的最后1句“For managers…”
解题思路: 对于管理者而言，这意味着员工必须能够胜任工作，而且必须承认(绩效)评估流程的有效性。是全文唯一提及appraisal process的句子，可以看出并没有题干所表述的意思，所以答案是 NOT GIVEN。
定位原文: KEY POINT FIVE 的最后1句“...by openly communicating everyone's remuneration, publicizing performance bonuses...”
解题思路: openly communicating, publicise和disclose是同义表达，所以题干的说法是正确的。
定位原文: KEY POINT TWO 的第2句“… the existence of external goals…”
定位原文: KEY POINT SIX 的第5句“The clerical workers…”
解题思路: 行政工作人员将工作表现质量和业务知识等因素排在名单前列。既然把quality of work排在前列，肯定认为这点很重要，所以正确答案是C。
定位原文：KEY POINT SIX 的倒数第2句“For example, production…”
解题思路：例如，生产工人认为晋升非常重要。advancement 与 promotion 是同义表达，生产工人把这点排在很髙的位置，说明他们认为这点很重要。