READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13，which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
A millennium ago, stepwells were fundamental to life in the driest parts of India. Richard Cox travelled to north-western India to document these spectacular monuments from a bygone era
During the sixth and seventh centuries, the inhabitants of the modern-day states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India developed a method of gaining access to clean, fresh groundwater during the dry season for drinking, bathing, watering animals and irrigation. However, the significance of this invention — the stepwell — goes beyond its utilitarian application.
Unique to this region, stepwells are often architecturally complex and vary widely in size and shape. During their heyday, they were places of gathering, of leisure and relaxation and of worship for villagers of all but the lowest classes. Most stepwells are found dotted round the desert areas of Gujarat (where they are called vav) and Rajasthan (where they are called baori), while a few also survive in Delhi. Some were located in or near villages as public spaces for the community; others were positioned beside roads as resting places for travellers.
As their name suggests, stepwells comprise a series of stone steps descending from ground level to the water source (normally an underground aquifer) as it recedes following the rains. When the water level was high, the user needed only to descend a few steps to reach it; when it was low, several levels would have to be negotiated.
Some wells are vast, open craters with hundreds of steps paving each sloping side, often in tiers. Others are more elaborate, with long stepped passages leading to the water via several storeys. Built from stone and supported by pillars, they also included pavilions that sheltered visitors from the relentless heat. But perhaps the most impressive features are the intricate decorative sculptures that embellish many stepwells, showing activities from fighting and dancing to everyday acts such as women combing their hair or churning butter.
Down the centuries, thousands of wells were constructed throughout north?western India, but the majority have now fallen into disuse; many are derelict and dry, as groundwater has been diverted for industrial use and the wells no longer reach the water table. Their condition hasn’t been helped by recent dry spells: southern Rajasthan suffered an eight-year drought between 1996 and 2004.
However, some important sites in Gujarat have recently undergone major restoration, and the state government announced in June last year that it plans to restore the stepwells throughout the state.
In Patan, the state’s ancient capital, the stepwell of Rani Ki Vav (Queen’s Stepwell) is perhaps the finest current example. It was built by Queen Udayamati during the late 11th century, but became silted up following a flood during the 13th century. But the Archaeological Survey of India began restoring it in the 1960s, and today it is in pristine condition. At 65 metres long, 20 metres wide and 27 metres deep, Rani Ki Vav features 500 sculptures carved into niches throughout the monument. Incredibly, in January 2001, this ancient structure survived an earthquake that measured 7.6 on the Richter scale.
Another example is the Surya Kund in Modhera, northern Gujarat, next to the Sun Temple, built by King Bhima I in 1026 to honour the sun god Surya. It actually resembles a tank (kund means reservoir or pond) rather than a well, but displays the hallmarks of stepwell architecture, including four sides of steps that descend to the bottom in a stunning geometrical formation. The terraces house 108 small, intricately carved shrines between the sets of steps.
Rajasthan also has a wealth of wells. The ancient city of Bundi, 200 kilometres south of Jaipur, is renowned for its architecture, including its stepwells.
One of the larger examples is Raniji Ki Baori，which was built by the queen of the region, Nathavatji, in 1699. At 46 metres deep, 20 metres wide and 40 metres long, the intricately carved monument is one of 21 baoris commissioned in the Bundi area by Nathavatji.
In the old ruined town of Abhaneri, about 95 kilometres east of Jaipur, is Chand Baori, one of India’s oldest and deepest wells; aesthetically it’s perhaps one of the most dramatic. Built in around 850 AD next to the temple of Harshat Mata, the baori comprises hundreds of zigzagging steps that run along three of its sides, steeply descending 11 storeys, resulting in a striking pattern when seen from afar. On the fourth side, verandas which are supported by ornate pillars overlook the steps.
Still in public use is Neemrana Ki Baori, located just off the Jaipur-Delhi highway. Constructed in around 1700, it is nine storeys deep, with the last two being underwater. At ground level, there are 86 colonnaded openings from where the visitor descends 170 steps to the deepest water source.
Today, following years of neglect, many of these monuments to medieval engineering have been saved by the Archaeological Survey of India, which has recognised the importance of preserving them as part of the country’s rich history. Tourists flock to wells in far-flung corners of north?-western India to gaze in wonder at these architectural marvels from hundreds of years ago, which serve as a reminder of both the ingenuity and artistry of ancient civilisations and of the value of water to human existence.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
1 Examples of ancient stepwells can be found all over the world.
2 Stepwells had a range of functions, in addition to those related to water collection.
3 The few existing stepwells in Delhi are more attractive than those found elsewhere.
4 It took workers many years to build the stone steps characteristic of stepwells.
5 The number of steps above the water level in a stepwell altered during the course of a year.
Answer the questions below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 6-8 on your answer sheet
6 Which part of some stepwells provided shade for people?
7 What type of serious climatic event, which took place in southern Rajasthan, is mentioned in the article?
8 Who are frequent visitors to stepwells nowadays?
Complete the table below.
Choose ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet
Stepwell Date Features Other notes
Rani Ki Vav Late
century As many as 500 sculptures decorate the monument Restored in the 1960s
Excellent condition, despite the 9 _______ of 2001
Surya Kund 1026 Steps on the
10 ______ produce a
Carved shrines Looks more like a 11 _______than a well
Raniji Ki Baori 1699 Intricately carved monument One of 21 baoris in the area commissioned by Queen Nathavatji
Chand Baori 850 AD Steps take you down 11 storeys to the bottom Old, deep and very dramatic
Has 12 _____ which
provide a view of the steps
Neemrana Ki Baori 1700 Has two 13 ______
levels Used by public today
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 on the following pages.
Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs, A-I.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-E and G-I from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number，i-xi, in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet
List of Headings
i A fresh and important long-term goal
ii Charging for roads and improving other transport methods
iii Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported
iv Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns
v The environmental costs of road transport
vi The escalating cost of rail transport
vii The need to achieve transport rebalance
viii The rapid growth of private transport
ix Plans to develop major road networks
x Restricting road use through charging policies alone
xi Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission
14 Paragraph A 19 Paragraph G
15 Paragraph B 20 Paragraph H
16 Paragraph C 21 Paragraph I
17 Paragraph D
18 Paragraph E
Paragraph F vii
EUROPEAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
What have been the trends and what are the prospects for European transport systems?
A It is difficult to conceive of vigorous economic growth without an efficient transport system. Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to increase. There are two key factors behind this trend. For passenger transport, the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in the next decade the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.
B As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production. In the last 20 years, as internal frontiers have been abolished, the EU has moved from a ‘stock’ economy to a ‘flow’ economy. This phenomenon has been emphasised by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or away from users.
C The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular road haulage traffic. In 1998, some of these countries already exported more than twice their 1990 volumes and imported more than five times their 1990 volumes. And although many candidate countries inherited a transport system which encourages rail, the distribution between modes has tipped sharply in favour of road transport since the 1990s. Between 1990 and 1998，road haulage increased by 19.4%, while during the same period rail haulage decreased by 43.5%, although — and this could benefit the enlarged EU — it is still on average at a much higher level than in existing member states.
D However, a new imperative — sustainable development — offers an opportunity for adapting the EU’s common transport policy. This objective, agreed by the Gothenburg European Council, has to be achieved by integrating environmental considerations into Community policies, and shifting the balance between modes of transport lies at the heart of its strategy. The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in place in 30 years’ time, that is by 2040.
E In 1998，energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of emissions of CO2，the leading greenhouse gas. According to the latest estimates, if nothing is done to reverse the traffic growth trend, CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020，compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990. Once again, road transport is the main culprit since it alone accounts for 84% of the CO2 emissions attributable to transport. Using alternative fuels and improving energy efficiency is thus both an ecological necessity and a technological challenge.
F At the same time greater efforts must be made to achieve a modal shift. Such a change cannot be achieved overnight, all the less so after over half a century of constant deterioration in favour of road. This has reached such a pitch that today rail freight services are facing marginalisation, with just 8% of market share, and with international goods trains struggling along at an average speed of 18km/h. Three possible options have emerged.
G The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing. This option would not be accompanied by complementary measures in the other modes of transport. In the short term it might curb the growth in road transport through the better loading ratio of goods vehicles and occupancy rates of passenger vehicles expected as a result of the increase in the price of transport. However, the lack of measures available to revitalise other modes of transport would make it impossible for more sustainable modes of transport to take up the baton.
H The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology). However, this approach does not include investment in new infrastructure, nor does it guarantee better regional cohesion. It could help to achieve greater uncoupling than the first approach, but road transport would keep the lion’s share of the market and continue to concentrate on saturated arteries, despite being the most polluting of the modes. It is therefore not enough to guarantee the necessary shift of the balance.
I The third approach, which is not new, comprises a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment in the trans-European network. This integrated approach would allow the market shares of the other modes to return to their 1998 levels and thus make a shift of balance. It is far more ambitious than it looks, bearing in mind the historical imbalance in favour of roads for the last fifty years, but would achieve a marked break in the link between road transport growth and economic growth, without placing restrictions on the mobility of people and goods.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
22 The need for transport is growing, despite technological developments.
23 To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant consumers.
24 Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.
25 The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.
26 By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
The psychology of innovation
Why are so few companies truly innovative?
Innovation is key to business survival，and companies put substantial resources into inspiring employees to develop new ideas. There are, nevertheless, people working in luxurious, state-of-the-art centres designed to stimulate innovation who find that their environment doesn’t make them feel at all creative. And there are those who don’t have a budget, or much space, but who innovate successfully.
For Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University, one reason that companies don’t succeed as often as they should is that innovation starts with recruitment. Research shows that the fit between an employee’s values and a company’s values makes a difference to what contribution they make and whether, two years after they join, they’re still at the company. Studies at Harvard Business School show that, although some individuals may be more creative than others, almost every individual can be creative in the right circumstances.
One of the most famous photographs in the story of rock’n’roll emphasises Ciaidini’s views. The 1956 picture of singers Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Jerry Lee Lewis jamming at a piano in Sun Studios in Memphis tells a hidden story. Sun’s ‘million-dollar quartet’ could have been a quintet. Missing from the picture is Roy Orbison, a greater natural singer than Lewis, Perkins or Cash. Sam Phillips, who owned Sun, wanted to revolutionise popular music with songs that fused black and white music, and country and blues. Presley, Cash, Perkins and Lewis instinctively understood Phillips’s ambition and believed in it. Orbison wasn’t inspired by the goal, and only ever achieved one hit with the Sun label.
The value fit matters, says Cialdini, because innovation is, in part, a process of change, and under that pressure we, as a species，behave differently, ‘When things change, we are hard-wired to play it safe.’ Managers should therefore adopt an approach that appears counter?intuitive — they should explain what stands to be lost if the company fails to seize a particular opportunity. Studies show that we invariably take more gambles when threatened with a loss than when offered a reward.
Managing innovation is a delicate art. It’s easy for a company to be pulled in conflicting directions as the marketing, product development, and finance departments each get different feedback from different sets of people. And without a system which ensures collaborative exchanges within the company, it’s also easy for small ‘pockets of innovation’ to disappear. Innovation is a contact sport. You can’t brief people just by saying, ‘We’re going in this direction and I’m going to take you with me.’
Cialdini believes that this ‘follow-the-leader syndrome is dangerous, not least because it encourages bosses to go it alone. ‘It’s been scientifically proven that three people will be better than one at solving problems, even if that one person is the smartest person in the field.’ To prove his point, Cialdini cites an interview with molecular biologist James Watson. Watson, together with Francis Crick, discovered the structure of DNA, the genetic information carrier of all living organisms. ‘When asked how they had cracked the code ahead of an array of highly accomplished rival investigators, he said something that stunned me. He said he and Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they weren’t the most intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer. The smartest scientist was called Rosalind Franklin who, Watson said, “was so intelligent she rarely sought advice”.’
Teamwork taps into one of the basic drivers of human behaviour. ‘The principle of social proof is so pervasive that we don’t even recognise it,’ says Cialdini. ‘If your project is being resisted, for example, by a group of veteran employees, ask another old-timer to speak up for it.’ Cialdini is not alone in advocating this strategy. Research shows that peer power, used horizontally not vertically, is much more powerful than any boss’s speech.
Writing, visualising and prototyping can stimulate the flow of new ideas. Cialdini cites scores of research papers and historical events that prove that even something as simple as writing deepens every individual’s engagement in the project. It is, he says, the reason why all those competitions on breakfast cereal packets encouraged us to write in saying, in no more than 10 words: ‘I like Kellogg’s Com Flakes because… .’ The very act of writing makes us more likely to believe it.
Authority doesn’t have to inhibit innovation but it often does. The wrong kind of leadership will lead to what Cialdini calls ‘captainitis, the regrettable tendency of team members to opt out of team responsibilities that are properly theirs’. He calls it captainitis because, he says, ‘crew members of multipilot aircraft exhibit a sometimes deadly passivity when the flight captain makes a clearly wrong-headed decision’. This behaviour is not, he says, unique to air travel, but can happen in any workplace where the leader is overbearing.
At the other end of the scale is the 1980s Memphis design collective, a group of young designers for whom ‘the only rule was that there were no rules’. This environment encouraged a free interchange of ideas, which led to more creativity with form, function, colour and materials that revolutionised attitudes to furniture design.
Many theorists believe the ideal boss should lead from behind, taking pride in collective accomplishment and giving credit where it is due. Cialdini says: ‘Leaders should encourage everyone to contribute and simultaneously assure all concerned that every recommendation is important to making the right decision and will be given full attention.’ The frustrating thing about innovation is that there are many approaches, but no magic formula. However, a manager who wants to create a truly innovative culture can make their job a lot easier by recognising these psychological realities.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
27 The example of the ‘million-dollar quartet’ underlines the writer’s point about
A recognising talent.
B working as a team.
C having a shared objective.
D being an effective leader.
28 James Watson suggests that he and Francis Crick won the race to discover the DNA code because they
A were conscious of their own limitations.
B brought complementary skills to their partnership.
C were determined to outperform their brighter rivals.
D encouraged each other to realise their joint ambition.
29 The writer mentions competitions on breakfast cereal packets as an example of how to
A inspire creative thinking.
B generate concise writing.
C promote loyalty to a group.
D strengthen commitment to an idea.
30 In the last paragraph, the writer suggests that it is important for employees to
A be aware of their company’s goals.
B feel that their contributions are valued.
C have respect for their co-workers’ achievements.
D understand why certain management decisions are made.
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet
31 Employees whose values match those of their employers are more likely to
32 At times of change, people tend to
33 If people are aware of what they might lose, they will often
34 People working under a dominant boss are liable to
35 Employees working in organisations with few rules are more likely to
A take chances.
B share their ideas.
C become competitive.
D get promotion.
E avoid risk.
F ignore their duties.
G remain in their jobs.
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
36 The physical surroundings in which a person works play a key role in determining their creativity.
37 Most people have the potential to be creative.
38 Teams work best when their members are of equally matched intelligence.
39 It is easier for smaller companies to be innovative.
40 A manager’s approval of an idea is more persuasive than that of a colleague.
关键词： all over the world
定位原文: 第2段第1句“Unique to this region... ”阶梯水并是这个地区独有的。
定位原文： 第2段第2句“During their heyday... ”在它们的全盛期，它们是聚集的场所， 是娱乐放松的场所，是除了底层阶级以外村民拜神的场所。
定位原文： 第2段第3句“Most stepwells…”大多数的阶梯水井被发现散落在吉拉特邦(他们称之为vov)和拉贾斯坦邦(他们称之为baori)的沙漠地带，还有少量的在德里发现。
解题思路： 原文完全未提及，所以答案为NOT GIVEN。
关键词： alter、course of a year
定位原文： 第3段第1句“As their name…”就像他们的名字所说的，阶梯水井由一系列 的石头台阶组成，这些石阶从地面下降到水源(通常是一个地下蓄水层)，因为它随着雨水后退。
解题思路： 原文中说，下雨的话，石阶会发生变化。由文中得知，这个变化也就是在石阶露出水面多少。后面一句话也可以看出有变化。When the water level...水面高的时候，取水的人只需要往下走几个台阶就好。
难度及答案: 难度低;答案为 pavilions
定位原文: 第4段第3句“Built from…pavilions that sheltered visitors… ”由石头建造，梁柱支撑，其中还包括亭子，使得拜访者免受无情高温的炙烤。
定位原文： 第5段最后一句“Their condition... ”它们的状况并没有因近期的干旱期得以改善：拉贾斯坦邦的南部在1996年和2004年遭受了长达八年的干旱。
解题思路： 原文中的suffered (经历)替换了题目中的took place。
定位原文: 最后1段第2句“Tourists flock to... ”旅行者们蜂拥而至印度西北遥远的角落里的水井，在惊奇中去凝视这些百年前的建筑传奇，这些传奇起着古老文明独创性和艺术性的暗示作用，也提醒着水对于人类生存的价值。
解题思路: 原文中这一段第一个词就是today, 所以是近期;原文中flock to “蜂拥而去” 对应着 frequent visitors。
参考译文: Rani Ki Vav状态很好，尽管2001年有____.
参考译文：Surya Kund ___的台阶产生了一种几何模式。
难度及答案: 难度中等;答案为4/four sides
关键词： 1026 ; geometrical pattern
定位原文： 第8段第2句“lt actually... ”实际上它更像一个池塘(kund的意思是蓄水池 池塘)而不是一个水井，但是却展现了阶梯水井建筑的特点，包括它的四面部有通向底部的极好的几何学构造的台阶。
解题思路: 根据geometrical pattern可以定位在这—句，根据steps on 可以定位到 including four sides of steps，所以答案为 4/four sides。
参考译文: Surya Kund与井比起来，看起来更加像____
关键词: 1026, looks like
解题思路: 原文中resembles与题目中的looks like属于同义替换。
参考译文: Chand Baori有___，它能够提供观看阶梯的视野。
关键词： 850 AD 、 11 storeys、 provide a view of the steps
定位原文： 第10段最后一句“On the fourth side?. ”在第四面，由华丽的柱子支撑的游廊 可以俯瞰这些台阶。
解题思路： 原文中 overlook the steps 与题目中的 provide a view of the steps 属于同义替换。
参考译文：Neemrana Ki Baori 有两个____层。
定位原文： 第11段第2句“Constructed in around 1700…”在大约1700年建造它有九层深，最后两层在水下。
难度及答案: 难度低;答案为 viii
关键词: rapid growth、private transport
定位原文: A段最后一句“The number of cars... ”在1990到2010年，欧盟道路上的汽车数量每一年会经历三百万的增长，并且在接下来的十年中，欧盟车队会经历更进一步的大幅增长。
解题思路: 原文说，汽车有一个飞速的增长，和私人交通迅速发展相符。原文中cars与viii 中的 private transport 属于同义替換，原文中 increase 以及 substantial increase 与viii中的rapid growth属同义替换。
关键词: changes、 goods
定位原文: B段第1句“As far as... ”至于货物运输，它的增长在很大程度上是出于欧洲经济和它的生产体系的改变。
解题思路: 原文说，由于欧洲经济的改变，使得货物运输有所影响，与答案相符。原文中的goods transport与iii中的goods may be transported属于同义替换，原文中 changes在iii中重现，原文中due to与iii中的affecting属于同义替换。
关键词： EU admission
定位原文： C段第1句“The strong economic...”在那些欧盟的候选国家，预期的经济大幅增长也将会增加交通流动性，尤其是公路交通运输。
解题思路: 原文说，欧盟候选国家的经济预期增长将令交通增长,和答案里的交通趋势相符。原文中 candidates for entry to the EU 与 xi 中的 awaiting EU admission 属于同义替换，原文中 expected 表示了题目中的 trend 趋势。
定位原文： D段第1句“however, a new...”然而一个新型必要事务----可持续发展----为适应欧盟共同的交通政策提供了一个机会。
关键词： environmental costs
定位原文： E段第1句“In 1998, energy consumption…”在1998年，交通领域的能源消耗占了二氧化碳排放量的28%,二氧化碳是一种主要温室气体。
解题思路: 原文说运输会产生温室气体，所以会造成环境破坏。原文中的energy consumption，emissions of C02 以及 greenhouse gas 能够体现出题目里边的 environmental costs。
关键词： restricting 、charging policies、alone
定位原文： G段第1句“The first approach…”第一种方法会包括对公路运输的关注，仅仅用定价来实现。
解题思路： 原文说，仅仅用价格来针对公路运输，与答案仅仅通过收费限制公路使用相符。原文中 road transport、solely、pricing 与 x 中的 road use、alone、charging policies属于同义替换。
关键词： charging for roads、improving other transport methods
定位原文： H段第1句“The second approach…”第二种方法聚焦在公路运输的价格上，但是伴随着提高其他方式效率的措施(更好的服务质量、物流、科技)。
解题思路： 原文中，accompanied by表示的就是还有另外一种，所以这一点对应答案中的 “且”，除了公路收费以外，还有其他途径。原文中road transport pricing替换为 ii 中的 charging for roads, increase the efficiency of the other modes 替换为 ii 中的 improving other transport methods。
关键词： all the steps、change transport patterns
定位原文： I段第1句“The third approach... ”第三种方法，它不是新的， 包含了一系列措施， 从价格到重兴可替代的交通模式，并且以投资欧盟交通网络系统作为目标。
解题思路： 原文说了很多方法，与答案中所有必要措施相符。原文中a series of measures替换为 iv 中的 all the steps，modes of transport 替换为 iv 中的 transport patterns。
定位原文： A段第2句“Although modem information…”尽管现在信息技术能够通过促进远程办公和远程服务降低物理运输的需求，可是对交通的需求继续在上升。
解题思路: 原文与题目都表示了对交通的需求趋势是上升的：所以答案为TRUE。原文中 although、 modem information technologies 、requirement for transports、 increase 分别与题目中的 despite、technological development、need for transport、 growing 是同义替换。
关键词：production costs 、industries 、 consumers
定位原文： B段最后一句“This phenomenon has been…”这种现象已经被些工业的迁移突出了,尤其是那些劳动力密集型的工业，为降低生产成本，即便生产地距离装配厂或者用户是几百或者上千米远。
解题思路：to reduce production costs在原文中重现，原文中relocation能够体现出搬家，原文中users替换consumers，但是原文中even though后面表规的意思是生产车间距离很远，而不是题目中的closer，所以明显矛盾，答案为FALSE。
难度及答案: 难度低; 答案为NOT GIVEN
关键词: cars、EU candidate countries
定位原文: C段第1句 “The strong economic...”,在那些欧盟的候选国家，预期的经济大幅增长也将会增加交通的流动性，尤其是公路交通运输。
难度及答案：难度中等; 答案为NOT GIVEN。
关键词：Gothenburg 、European Council
关键词：739 billion tones
定位原文：E段第2句“According to the latest... ”根据最新的估计，如果不采取措施去逆转交通增长的趋势，与记载的1990年的7390亿吨相比;到2020年，二氧化碳的排放量将会增长50%，到1,1130亿吨。
解题思路：原文中CO2 emissions有原词重现，原文中by 2020替换了 by the end of this decade，原文中 be expected to 替换了 are predicted to，题目里面的 739 billion tones与原文中说会达到1,113 billion tones不一致，所以答案为FALSE。
关键词： million-dollar quartet
定位原文： 第3段第2句到后面的“Sun’s ‘million-dollar quartet’...”太阳的“百万美元四重唱组合”本来可以成为五重唱组合的。照片里没有的是Roy Orbison，一个比Lewis, Perkins或者Cash更加有天赋的歌手。Sam Phillips, 太阳工作室的拥有者，想要用融合了黑白音乐，乡村和蓝调音乐的结合体来革新流行乐。 Presley，Cash，Perkins和Lewis直觉上就理解了 Phillips的野心而且充满信心。 Orbison对于这一目标并不感冒，而且与太阳公司仅实现了一次合作。
解题思路: 原文中的goal与C项里的objective是同义替换。从文中可以看出来，退出的 Orbison与组合里的其他成员，以及老板的创新观念并不相符。所以，有一个共同的目标非常重要。
参考译文： James Watson 说他和Francis Crick能够率先发现DNA密码是因为他们____.
定位原文： 第6段倒数第2句“He said he and Crick…”他说他和Cricket之所以能够成功， 是因为他们知道在众多追寻答案的科学家之中，他们并不是最聪明的。
解题思路： 根据DNA找到本段第4句话，往后看倒数第2句话提到了成功的原因，因为他们明白，他们不是最聪明的，这句话解释了答案里边的他们明白自己的局限。 原文中 aware 替换为 A 选项中的 conscious, weren’t the most intelligent 解释了他们有limitations。
关键词： breakfast cereal packets
定位原文： 第8段倒数第2句及最后一句“It is，he says... ”他说，这就是为什么所有的早餐谷物粥仅装竞争者都会鼓励大家写下不超过10字的话：“我喜欢Kellogg玉米片，因为…”这一书写行为会让我们更加愿意去相信这件事。
解题思路： 定位不难，最后一句话the very act of writing就是指前面的书写这句话的行为，这一行为会使得我们更加愿意去相信它。原文中more likely to替换为选项D 中的 strengthen，难度在于 believe 与 commitment 的替换。Commitment 的意思除了承诺意外，还有信奉的意思。
定位原文：最后1段第2句话“Cialdini says... ” Cialdini说“领导们应该鼓励每个人去贡献(自己的想法)并且确保相关人员都意识到每一个建议对于制定正确的决策和(每个人的想法)被充分地考虑都是很重要的”。
解题思路: 题目已经告诉了最后一段，所以定位不难。原文中主语用到的是leaders，说领导应该鼓励每个人， everyone替换了 employees， 所以员工应该怎么做， 我们应该encourage (鼓励)他们做什么。原文中说鼓励大家contribute (做贡献)， 替换了答案中的contributions，原文中的同时要保证每一个人的意见都很important (重要)， 还有 will be given full attention(给予充分关注)，这两点都体现出了答案中的valued (被重视)。
解题思路: 根据values找到第2段第2句，原文说，员工与老板的价值观是否一致，会对两方面有影响，一方面是员工会有什么贡献，另一方面是两年以后他们是否还在这家公司。所以第二点与答案继续保持工作相符。原文中fit替换了 match，they're still at the company替换了remain in their jobs。
定位原文：第4段1句“The value fit matters…”价值观是否合拍很重要，Cialdini说，因为创新在一定程度上也是改变的过程，在这种压力下，我们作为一种物种，会有不同的表现，“事情有所改变的时候，我们很自然地就会选择安全的行动 ”。
解题思路: 根据at times of change找到原文中when things change。原文提到，我们会 play it safe，与答案中的avoid risk是同义替换。
定位原文：第4段最后一句“Studies show that…”研究表明，当面对损失而不是奖赏的时候，我们不可避免地会更加冒险。
解题思路: 主要是替换，原文中 when threatened with a loss 替换了 are aware of what they might lose，原文中 take more gambles 替换了take chances。
关键词：a dominant boss
定位原文：第9段第2句及最后一句“The wrong kind of leadership…”这一错误的领导方式会导致Cialdini称之为“机长症候群，一种令人遗憾的趋势，团队成员会把本该属于自己的责任推卸给领导的一种趋势”……据他所言，这一行为并不单单在飞机上会出现，而是当领导太独断的时候，这会发生在任何工作场合下。
解题思路: 这道题的难度在于词组不熟悉，opt out的意思是“退出”、“免除”、“避免”，替换了 ignore，responsibilities 替换了 duties。还有就是最后一句的 the leader is overbearing 替换了 a dominant boss。
解题思路： 第一句是定位点，原文中the only rule 和no rule 替换了few rules， 第2句是解题点，a free interchange of ideas 替换了share their ideas。
解题思路: 原文中说那些工作条件非常好的人，发现这个环境一点也不能让自己有创造性，所以与題目很明显矛盾。原文中的centres，environment替换了 physical surroundings, 原文中creative 替换了creativity。
解题思路: 原文中 almost every individuals 替换了 most people， can be替换了 potential。
难度及答案：难度低;答案为 NOT GIVEN
关键词：equally matched intelligence
难度及答案：难度低;答案为 NOT GIVEN
关键词：manager's approvals 、colleague
定位原文：第7段最后一句 “Research shows...” 研究表明,同事的力量，同等级运用，而不是上下级运用的话，远比老板的任何言论更加有说服力。
解题思路：这道题涉及比较多的替换，原文中peer power替换了 colleague, powerful替换了 persuasive，boss’s speech 替换了 manager’s approval。