V120510S1S2S3S4 V120512S1S2S3S4 V120526S1S2S3S4 V120721S1S2S3S4 V120728S1S3S4 V120804S1S2S3S4 V120922S1S2S3S4 V120114S1S2S4 V120204S2S3S4 V120209S1S2S3 V120218S1S2S3S4 V120225S3 V120308S1S2S3 V120310S1S2S3S4 V120317S2S3S4 V120331S1S2 V120412S1S2S4 V120414S1S2S3S4 V120421S1S2S3 V120428S1S4 V110108S1 V110115S2S3 V110122S1 V110217S2 V110305S1S3 V110402S1S2 V110416S1S4 V110428S2S3 V110430S3S4 V111105S1S3 V111117S1S2S4 V111119S2S3S4 V111126S1S2S4 V111203S1S2S3S4 V111217S1S2S4 V110604S1S2S3S4, V110611S1S2S3S4, V110623S1S2, V110709S3 V110716S2S4 V110728S1S2S3; V110730S1S3S4 V110813S1S3 V110820S1S2S3S4 V110825S1S2S3S4 V110827S1S2


  Now before I invite you to join in a discussion in thissecond part of the seminar,I'd like to make somevery important points about our fieldwork - and infact any field trip to look at rock art.

  We're going to a number of sites,and we won'talways be together.The single largest problem facedby people who manage the sites is - yes,I'm sureyou've guessed - damage caused by bisitors,eventhough it's usually unintentional.

  Whenever you do go to a site,don't forget you canlearn many things from observing at a distanceinstead of walking all over it.This can really help to reduce visitor pressure.People oftensay,'Well,there's only two of us and just this one time',but maybe thousands of people aresaying the same thing.

  And then some basic rules to guide you - we'll have our own camp near a village,but remembernever to camp on a site if you go on your own.It may be disrespectful to the people of thatculture,and certainly don't make fires,however romantic it may seem.It's really dangerous indry areas,and you can easily burn priceless undiscovered material by doing so.



  1. A piece of equipment ( in your home) you always use/An important machine设备、机器/ A product that you bought & made you happy产品

  2. An important thing you or your family have kept for a long time保留很久之物 3. Something you ate once吃过一次的东西/An occasion when you ate something for 4. the first time第一次吃某物

  5. A big company you are interested in 大公司

  6. Your favorite movie最喜欢的电影

  7. A useful website you often visit网站/An article/A magazine or newspaper杂志报纸文章-均同素材

  8. A course/subject that you want to have in the future

  9. Something important for you to keep fit 保持健康 10. A piece of good news you got recently 好消息 11. A time when you got up early 早起 12. A (car/motorbike/bike) trip/journey you would like to go on汽车/摩托车/自行车旅行/A happy family event快乐活动/An outdoor activity户外活动 13. An interesting tradition in your country 有趣传统 14. sth. /An experience that made you laugh 让你笑 15. A time when you missed an appointment错过赴约


  A person who moved to live with you. (共住一起的人)

  A person made you laugh ( 2014年旧题回归)(发笑的人)

  A creative inventor or musician (创新音乐家/ 发明家)

  A person who has great influence on you (影响你的人)

  A family ( not your own) you like (你喜欢的一个家庭)

  A photo (一个照片)


  An app on mobile phone or computer

  An interesting story or novel

  A book A toy you played in your childhood






















  Striking Back at Lightning

  With Lasers

  Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike. Their electrical fury inflicts death or serious injury on around 500 people each year in the United States alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death — out in the open, a lone golfer may be a lightning bolt’s most inviting target. And there is damage to property too. Lightning damage costs American power companies more than $100 million a year.

  But researchers in the United States and Japan are planning to hit back. Already in laboratory trials they have tested strategies for neutralising the power of thunderstorms, and this winter they will brave real storms, equipped with an armoury of lasers that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike.

  The idea of forcing storm clouds to discharge their lightning on command is not new. In the early 1960s, researchers tried firing rockets trailing wires into thunderclouds to set up an easy discharge path for the huge electric charges that these clouds generate. The technique survives to this day at a test site in Florida run by the University of Florida, with support from the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), based in California. EPRI, which is funded by power companies, is looking at ways to protect the United States’ power grid from lightning strikes. ‘We can cause the lightning to strike where we want it to using rockets,’ says Ralph Bernstein, manager of lightning projects at EPRI. The rocket site is providing precise measurements of lightning voltages and allowing engineers to check how electrical equipment bears up.

  Bad behaviour

  But while rockets are fine for research, they cannot provide the protection from lightning strikes that everyone is looking for. The rockets cost around $1,200 each, can only be fired at a limited frequency and their failure rate is about 40 per cent. And even when they do trigger lightning, things still do not always go according to plan. ‘Lightning is not perfectly well behaved,’ says Bernstein. ‘Occasionally, it will take a branch and go someplace it wasn’t supposed to go.’


  And anyway, who would want to fire streams of rockets in a populated area? ‘What goes up must come down,’ points out Jean-Claude Diels of the University of New Mexico. Diels is leading a project, which is backed by EPRI, to try to use lasers to discharge lightning safely — and safety is a basic requirement since no one wants to put themselves or their expensive equipment at risk. With around $500,000 invested so far, a promising system is just emerging from the laboratory.

  The idea began some 20 years ago, when high-powered lasers were revealing their ability to extract electrons out of atoms and create ions. If a laser could generate a line of ionisation in the air all the way up to a storm cloud, this conducting path could be used to guide lightning to Earth, before the electric field becomes strong enough to break down the air in an uncontrollable surge. To stop the laser itself being struck, it would not be pointed straight at the clouds. Instead it would be directed at a mirror, and from there into the sky. The mirror would be protected by placing lightning conductors close by. Ideally, the cloud-zapper (gun) would be cheap enough to be installed around all key power installations, and portable enough to be taken to international sporting events to beam up at brewing storm clouds.

  A stumbling block

  However, there is still a big stumbling block. The laser is no nifty portable: it’s a monster that takes up a whole room. Diels is trying to cut down the size and says that a laser around the size of a small table is in the offing. He plans to test this more manageable system on live thunderclouds next summer.

  Bernstein says that Diels’s system is attracting lots of interest from the power companies. But they have not yet come up with the $5 million that EPRI says will be needed to develop a commercial system, by making the lasers yet smaller and cheaper. ‘I cannot say I have money yet, but I’m working on it,’ says Bernstein. He reckons that the forthcoming field tests will be the turning point — and he’s hoping for good news. Bernstein predicts ‘an avalanche of interest and support‘ if all goes well. He expects to see cloud-zappers eventually costing $50,000 to $100,000 each.

  Other scientists could also benefit. With a lightning ‘switch’ at their fingertips, materials scientists could find out what happens when mighty currents meet matter. Diels also hopes to see the birth of ‘interactive meteorology’ — not just forecasting the weather but controlling it. ‘If we could discharge clouds, we might affect the weather,’ he says.

  And perhaps, says Diels, we’ll be able to confront some other meteorological menaces. ‘We think we could prevent hail by inducing lightning,’ he says. Thunder, the shock wave that comes from a lightning flash, is thought to be the trigger for the torrential rain that is typical of storms. A laser thunder factory could shake the moisture out of clouds, perhaps preventing the formation of the giant hailstones that threaten crops. With luck, as the storm clouds gather this winter, laser-toting researchers could, for the first time, strike back.

  Questions 1-3

  Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

  Write the correct letter in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

  1 The main topic discussed in the text is

  A the damage caused to US golf courses and golf players by lightning strikes.

  B the effect of lightning on power supplies in the US and in Japan.

  C a variety of methods used in trying to control lightning strikes.

  D a laser technique used in trying to control lightning strikes.

  2 According to the text, every year lightning

  A does considerable damage to buildings during thunderstorms.

  B kills or injures mainly golfers in the United States.

  C kills or injures around 500 people throughout the world.

  D damages more than 100 American power companies.

  3 Researchers at the University of Florida and at the University of New Mexico

  A receive funds from the same source.

  B are using the same techniques.

  C are employed by commercial companies.

  D are in opposition to each other.

  Questions 4-6

  Complete the sentences below.

  Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 4-6 on your answer sheet.

  4 EPRI receives financial support from ..................... .


  5 The advantage of the technique being developed by Diels is that it can be used.....................

  6 The main difficulty associated with using the laser equipment is related to its.....................

  Questions 7-10

  Complete the summary using the list of words, A-I, below.

  Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.

  In this method, a laser is used to create a line of ionization by removing electrons from 7 ..................... . This laser is then directed at 8 ..................... in order to control electrical charges, a method which is less dangerous than using 9..................... . As a protection for the lasers, the beams are aimed firstly at 10 ..................... .

  A cloud-zappers B atoms C storm clouds

  D mirrors E technique F ions

  G rockets H conductors I thunder

  Questions 11-13

  Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

  In boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet write

  YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

  No if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

  NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

  11 Power companies have given Diels enough money to develop his laser.

  12 Obtaining money to improve the lasers will depend on tests in real storms.

  13 Weather forecasters are intensely interested in Diels’s system.


  Question 1

  答案: D

  关键词: main topic

  定位原文: 文章标题

  解题思路: 通过标题知道整篇文章的主旨是“通过激光来回击闪电”,因此答案是 D 选项,意思为 “一种用于控制闪电袭击的激光技术”,属于对标题的同义替换。

  Question 2

  答案: A

  关键词: every year lightening

  定位原文: 第1段内容

  解题思路: 本题考查关于每年闪电情况的细节,可 定位于第一段。B 选项可以通过 golfer 一词来定 位,也在第一段,原文意思是“孤单的高尔夫球 手或许将是闪电之箭最为有吸引力的目标”,选 项 B“在美国主要杀死或者伤害高尔夫球手”改 变了原意 ;C 和 D 选项可以分别通过 500,100 这两个数字来定位到第一段,但是 C 选项中将原 文 in the United States 偷换成了 throughout the world,因此不对;D中将原文的$100 million 偷换成 100 companies,也不对。通过对第一段 的概括,可以知道闪电带来的影响是非常大的, 因此答案是 A。

  Question 3

  答案: A

  关键词: University of Florida, University of New Mexico

  定位原文: 第三段和第五段内容

  解题思路: 题目问的是 University of Florida 和 University of New Mexico 的研究员的关系。通 过 University of Florida 和 University of New Mexico 分别定位至第三段和第五段。对两处论 述进行对比,不难得出两者共同之处是“从同一来源获得经费”,都是 EPRI。答案是 A。

  Question 4

  答案: power companies

  关键词: EPRI, financial support

  对应原文: 第3段第4句“EPRI, which is funded…”

  解题思路: 用EPRI定位到文章第三段,EPRI第一次出现之后即指出其是由电力公司资助的,原文中的funded 等同于题干中的 receives financial support from, 因此答案应该填power companies。注意不要写成单数。

  Question 5

  答案: safely

  关键词: Diels, advantage

  定位原文: 第5段第3句“...to try to use lasers to…”

  解题思路: 用人名Diels在文中定位到第五段,从题目看出这里应填入一个副词,所以可以在人名周围寻找 use或者use的替换词,并且在其周围找带有-ly形式的词,这样正确答案safely很快就能浮出水面了。

  Question 6

  答案: size

  关键词: difficulty, laser equipment

  定位原文: 第7段第1、2句“…The laser is no nifty…”

  解题思路: 这道题目的定位稍微有一些困难,需要将 difficulty一词与文章中的stumbling block联系起来,进而找到第七段中的laser一词。文中提到,该激光设备并不方便携带,它是个体积占据了一整间房间的庞然大物。看到这里,通过理解,考生们可以想到激光设备最大的问题就是体积太大,不好携带,所以正确答案是size。

  Question 7

  答案: B

  关键词: removing electrons

  定位原文: 第6段第1句“...to extract electrons out…”

  解题思路: 本题关键是要理解题目中的remove...from...与文中的extract...out of...属于同义替换,这里要表达的是从原子(atoms)中提取电荷(electrons)。

  Question 8

  答案: C

  关键词: then, control electrical charges

  定位原文: 第6段第2句“If a laser could generate a line of ionization in the air all the way up to a storm cloud...”

  解题思路: 注意文中generate是“产生”的意思;directed at对应文中的 all the way up to,其后的 a storm cloud即对应空格处要填的内容。因此正确答案是C。

  Question 9

  答案: G

  关键词: less dangerous than

  定位原文: 第4段和第5段内容

  解题思路:解答本题需要对文章有一个提炼,第 9 题问的是激光是相对于哪种方式更加有安全 的技术。根据第四段和第五段可以知道,第四段说火箭发射的缺点,第五段说出于安全性的考虑开始使用激光,因此答案应该是火箭(rockets)。


  Question 10

  答案: D

  关键词: protection, aimed firstly

  定位原文: 第6段第3、4句“To stop the laser…”

  解题思路: protection对应文中的 stop...being struck; at是解题关键词,即使不知道文中的directed和题目中的aimed是同义词,也可以从词组的形式上看出来两者是同位的,其后的名词即为答案。由此可知答案是D。

  Question 11

  答案: NO

  关键词: Diels, enough money

  定位原文: 第8段第3句“‘I cannot say I have…”

  解题思路: “I cannot say I have money yet, but I am working on it”( “我还不能说我已经拿到钱了,但是我正在为之努力。”)看到这句话,再联系上句:Bernstein says that Diels’ system is attracting lots of interest from the power companies. But they have not yet come up with the $5 million that EPRI says will be needed to develop a commercial system...(Bernstein表示,Diels的激光系统正在引起各电力公司的广泛兴趣。但他们还没有准备EPRI提出的500万美元——开发一个……的商用系统的所需资金。)这两句话足以证明Diels系统还没有得到足够的资金支持。

  Question 12

  答案: YES

  关键词: depend on tests in real storms

  定位原文: 第8段第4句“He reckons…”

  解题思路: 根据第八段Bernstein的话可知,他认为即将来临的实地测验将是转折点,他希望有好消息。如果一切进展顺利,Bernstein 预测关注和支持将潮涌而来。题目表述符合文意。

  Question 13


  关键词: Diels, weather forecasters

  定位原文: 第9段最后两句“Diels also hopes…”

  解题思路: 文章第九段虽然提到了天气预报,即Diels希望将来看到“交互式气象学”, 不仅是预报天气,还可以控制天气 ;但是却并没有提到过 weather forecasters 的态度,他们也许感兴趣,也许不感兴趣,无从判断。


  1、Many governments think that economic progress is their most important goal. Some people, however, think that other types of progress are equally important for a country.

  Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  2、Some people say that the only reason for learning a foreign language is in order to travel to or work in a foreign country. Others say that these are not the only reasons why someone should learn a foreign language.

  Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  3、Some people claim that not enough of the waste from homes is recycled. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement.

  To what extent do you think laws are needed to make people recycle more of their waste?

  4、Governments should spend money on railways rather than roads.

  To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

  5、Every year several languages die out. Some people think that this is not important because life will be easier if there are fewer languages in the world.

  To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

  6、Increasing the price of petrol is the best way to solve growing traffic and pollution problems.

  To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  What other measures do your think might be effective?

  7、Some people believe that visitors to other countries should follow local customs and behavior. Others disagree and think that the host country should welcome cultural differences.

  Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  8、 Some people prefer to spend their lives doing the same things and avoiding change. Others, however, think that change is always a good thing.

  Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  9、 Write about the following topic:

  Happiness is considered very important in life.

  Why is it difficult to define?

  What factors are important in achieving happiness?

  10、  In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies.

  Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this.