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MAN: Greek Island Holidays,can I help you?
WOMAN: Yes,I hope so.I have a friend who's justcome back from Corfu and she's recommended someapartments in Arilas.She thought they might be onyour list.
MAN: Arilas,Arilas,let me see.Can you give me thenames?
WOMAN: Yes,the first's Rose GardenApartments.I'd like to go with another friend in the last week of October.
MAN: Well,we've got a lovely studio flat available at that time.I'm sure you'd enjoy theentertainment programme there too,with Greek dancing in the restaurant.
WOMAN: And the cost for each of us?
WOMAN: That sounds very reasonable!I'm just jotting down some notes.Now the second oneshe mentioned was called Blue Bay.
MAN: Blue Bay?Yes,in fact that's very popular and it has some special features.
MAN: The main attraction is the large swimming pool with salt water.
WOMAN: Much healthier,I understand.
MAN: That's right.And it isn't far from the beach,either - only 300 metres,and only around halfa kilometre to some shops,so you don't have to be too energetic.
WOMAN: Is it much more expensive than the first one?
MAN: Let me just check.I think at the time you want to go it's around ￡260 - no ￡275 to beexact.
WOMAN: Right,I've got that.Now there are just two more apartments to ask you about.Um,Ican't read my own writing!Something to do with sun...Sunshine,is it?
MAN: I think you meant the Sunshade Apartments.They're on a mountainside.
WOMAN: Any special features?
MAN: Yes,each room has its own sun terrace and there are shared barbecue facilities.
WOMAN: Sounds lovely!
MAN: Yes,it is rather well-equipped.It also provides water sports - it has its own beach.Thereare facilities for water-skiing.
WOMAN: Any kite-surfing?My friend's quite keen.
MAN: Not at the hotel but I'm sure you'll find some in Arilas.There's also satellite TV in theapartments.
WOMAN: And how much is that one?
MAN: ￡490 with two sharing.
WOMAN: You mean ￡245 each?
MAN: I'm afraid not!Each person has to pay that amount and there must be at least two in anapartment.
WOMAN: I don't think that would be within our budget,unfortunately.And the last one soundsa bit expensive too - the Grand!
MAN: Actually it's quite reasonable.It's an older style house with Greek paintings in everyroom,and a balcony outside.
WOMAN: Sound nice.What are the views like?
MAN: Well,there are forests all round and they hide a supermarket just dow the road,so that'svery useful for all your shopping needs.There's a disco in the area too.
WOMAN: And the price?
MAN: ￡319 at that time,but if you leave it till November it goes down by 40%.
WOMAN: Too late,I'm afraid.
MAN: Well,why don't i send you a brochure with full details,Ms...?
WOMAN: Nash.But don't worry about that.I'm coming to Upminster soon and I'll call and getone.I just wanted to get an idea first.
MAN: Well,that's fine.We've got plenty here when you come.
Do you spend your free time at home or outside?
What do you do in free time?
Do you like to spend your free time with families or friends?
What are the differences between the sports that old people and the ones that young people do?
Do you play any indoor games?
Do you prefer to play indoor games or outdoor games?
What kinds of things do you have to bring when you go out
Did you ever forget to bring something?
How do you remind yourself?
Do you carry different things in the morning and in the evening?
How often do you wear a watch?
What was your first watch like?
What kinds of watches do you like to wear?
Do people still wear watches in your country?
What do you do after work or study with friends?
What do you like to do with friends? Why?
Do you have many friends?
How often do you talk to your friends?
How do you communicate with your friends?
1.Describe a shop that just opened in your hometown
You should say:
Where the shop is
When it opened
What it sells
And how you feel about the shop
①Do you like big shops or small shops?
②Why do some people like to visit small shops?
③Should governments develop big shops or small shops?
④Should shops be located in city centers or in the suburbs?
⑤What can shops do to attract customers?
2.Describe a quiet place
You should say:
Where it is
What you can do there
Who you would like to go with
And explain how you feel about this place
①Why do some people not like quiet places?
②Do you know other quiet places?
③Do you need a quiet place when you are working?
④Why do people like to spend time in quiet places?
⑤Do you know anyone who likes noise?
GREYING POPULATION STAYS IN THE PINK
Elderly people are growing healthier, happier and more independent, say American scientists. The results of a 14-year study to be announced later this month reveal that the diseases associated with old age are afflicting fewer and fewer people and when they do strike, it is much later in life.
In the last 14 years, the National Long-term Health Care Survey has gathered data on the health and lifestyles of more than 20,000 men and women over 65. Researchers, now analysing the results of data gathered in 1994, say arthritis, high blood pressure and circulation problems — the major medical complaints in this age group — are troubling a smaller proportion every year. And the data confirms that the rate at which these diseases are declining continues to accelerate. Other diseases of old age — dementia, stroke, arteriosclerosis and emphysema — are also troubling fewer and fewer people.
‘It really raises the question of what should be considered normal ageing,’ says Kenneth Manton, a demographer from Duke University in North Carolina. He says the problems doctors accepted as normal in a 65-year-old in 1982 are often not appearing until people are 70 or 75.
Clearly, certain diseases are beating a retreat in the face of medical advances. But there may be other contributing factors. Improvements in childhood nutrition in the first quarter of the twentieth century, for example, gave today’s elderly people a better start in life than their predecessors.
On the downside, the data also reveals failures in public health that have caused surges in some illnesses. An increase in some cancers and bronchitis may reflect changing smoking habits and poorer air quality, say the researchers. ‘These may be subtle influences,’ says Manton, ‘but our subjects have been exposed to worse and worse pollution for over 60 years. It’s not surprising we see some effect."
One interesting correlation Manton uncovered is that better-educated people are likely to live longer. For example, 65-year-old women with fewer than eight years of schooling are expected, on average, to live to 82. Those who continued their education live an extra seven years. Although some of this can be attributed to a higher income, Manton believes it is mainly because educated people seek more medical attention.
The survey also assessed how independent people over 65 were, and again found a striking trend. Almost 80% of those in the 1994 survey could complete everyday activities ranging from eating and dressing unaided to complex tasks such as cooking and managing their finances. That represents a significant drop in the number of disabled old people in the population. If the trends apparent in the United States 14 years ago had continued, researchers calculate there would be an additional one million disabled elderly people in today’s population. According to Manton, slowing the trend has saved the United States government’s Medicare system more than $200 billion, suggesting that the greying of America’s population may prove less of a financial burden than expected.
The increasing self-reliance of many elderly people is probably linked to a massive increase in the use of simple home medical aids. For instance, the use of raised toilet seats has more than doubled since the start of the study, and the use of bath seats has grown by more than 50%. These developments also bring some health benefits, according to a report from the MacArthur Foundation’s research group on successful ageing. The group found that those elderly people who were able to retain a sense of independence were more likely to stay healthy in old age.
Maintaining a level of daily physical activity may help mental functioning, says Carl Cotman, a neuroscientist at the University of California at Irvine. He found that rats that exercise on a treadmill have raised levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor coursing through their brains. Cotman believes this hormone, which keeps neurons functioning, may prevent the brains of active humans from deteriorating.
As part of the same study, Teresa Seeman, a social epidemiologist at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, found a connection between self-esteem and stress in people over 70. In laboratory simulations of challenging activities such as driving, those who felt in control of their lives pumped out lower levels of stress hormones such as cortisol. Chronically high levels of these hormones have been linked to heart disease.
But independence can have drawbacks. Seeman found that elderly people who felt emotionally isolated maintained higher levels of stress hormones even when asleep. The research suggests that older people fare best when they feel independent but know they can get help when they need it.
‘Like much research into ageing, these results support common sense,’ says Seeman. They also show that we may be underestimating the impact of these simple factors. ‘The sort of thing that your grandmother always told you turns out to be right on target,’ she says.
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-Q, below.
Write the correct letter, A-Q in boxes 14-22 on your answer sheet.
Research carried out by scientists in the United States has shown that the proportion of people over 65 suffering from the most common age-related medical problems is 14 ..............and that the speed of this change is 15.............. . It also seems that these diseases are affecting people 16.............. in life than they did in the past. This is largely due to developments in 17.............., but other factors such as improved 18.............. may also be playing a part. Increases in some other illnesses may be due to changes in personal habits and to 19.............. . The research establishes a link between levels of 20.............. and life expectancy. It also shows that there has been a considerable reduction in the number of elderly people who are 21.............., which means that the 22.............. involved in supporting this section of the population may be less than previously predicted.
A cost B falling C technology
D undernourished E earlier F later
G disabled H more I increasing
J nutrition K education L constant
M medicine N pollution O environmental
P health Q independent
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-H, below.
Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.
23 Home medical aids
24 Regular amounts of exercise
25 Feelings of control over life
26 Feelings of loneliness
A may cause heart disease.
B can be helped by hormone treatment.
C may cause rises in levels of stress hormones.
D have cost the United States government more than $200 billion.
E may help prevent mental decline.
F may get stronger at night.
G allow old people to be more independent.
H can reduce stress in difficult situations.
关键词：proportion/people over 65/age-related medical problems
定位原文: 第2段第2句“...are troubling a smaller proportion…”
解题思路: smaller 和falling 是隐晦的同义表达，B选项符合题意。
定位原文: 第2段倒数第2句“the rate at which these diseases…”
定位原文: 第3段第2句“He says…”
解题思路: 第3段中提到the problems doctors accepted as normal in a 65-year-oId in 1982 are often not appearing until people are 70 or 75，第二段提到数据是1994年采集的，所以1982代表了the past，疾病由65岁推迟到70或者75 岁才发作，显然是later。
关键词：due to developments
定位原文: 第4段第1句“…certain diseases are beating…”
解题思路: 第四段开头提到certain diseases are beating a retreat in the face of medical advances，表明有些疾病是被医药进步打败的。advances和developments属于同义表达，medical和medicine是同源词。
定位原文: 第4段第2、3句“…there may be other contributing factors. Improvements…”
定位原文: 第5段第2、3句“… poorer air quality/ worse and worse pollution…”
解题思路: 第五段提到An increase in some cancers and bronchitis may reflect changing smoking habits and poorer air quality...和....been exposed to worse and worse pollution, changes in personal habits与 changing smoking habits相对应。所以原文提供的另一因素poorer air quality就是与答案相关的内容。正确答案是N。
定位原文: 第6段第1句“One interesting…”
解题思路: 第6段第1句中的correlation和live longer分别对应题干中的link和life expectancy，所以原文的better-educated就是答案的原形，被选项中只有K项的education与此相符。正确答案是K。
定位原文: 第7段第3句“That represents…”
解题思路: considerable与significant、reduction与 drop分别为近义词，再根据第七段中a significant drop in the number of disabled old people，答案应为disabled。正确答案是G。
定位原文: 第7段最后一句“… less of a financial burden…”
解题思路: predicted与expected为同义表达，只需找 financial burden的同义表达就可以。正确答案是A。
关键词：home medical aids
定位原文: 第8段第1句“The increasing…”
关键词：regular amounts of exercise
定位原文: 第9段第1句“…daily physical activity…”
解题思路: exercise 与physical activity 属于同义表达，regular与daily 属于同义表达，所以选E。
关键词：feelings of control over life
定位原文: 第10段倒数第2句“…felt in control of their lives…”
解题思路: 根据第10段中 challenging activities和 those who felt in control of their lives pumped out lower levels of stress hormone, challenging activities 与 difficult situations 属于同义表达，lower levels of stress hormones自然压力就小。正确答案是H。
关键词： feelings of loneliness
定位原文: 第11段第2句“…emotionally isolated…”
解题思路: feelings of loneliness 与emotionally isolated 属于同义表达，所以选C。
Throughout the history, people dream to build a perfect societywhile they haven't agreed how the ideal society would be like. What is the mostimportant element you think to make a perfect society? How do people do toachieving an ideal society?
Some peoplebelieve that in order to give opportunities to new generation companies should encouragehigh level employees who are older than 55 to retire. Do you agree or disagree?Why? (老年人。拓展：年轻人是否应该担任重要职位、长寿、住养老院还是在家、退休生活、长者智慧)
Today's parents spend too little time staying with their children and use televisionto make their children keep quiet. Explain the reason and results by using yourrelevant experience. (儿童。拓展：儿童是否应严格要求)
Charities and organizations always give special names to particular days such as'National Children's Day' and 'National Non-smoking Day'. What are the causesof these particular days? How effective are they?
It is suggested that all the young adults should undertake a period of unpaid workhelping people in the community. Does it bring more benefits or drawbacks tothe community and the young people? (志愿者。 )
Some people think that strong tradition can civilize a country and the governmentshould subsidize musicians, artists, actors and drama companies. Do you agreeor disagree with the opinion? What should the government do? (传统。拓展：多元文化的好坏、该不该入乡随俗、如何学习别人的好传统、国际交流)
the professional workers such as doctors, nurses and teachers should be paid morethan the sports and entertainment personalities. Do you agree or disagree
In many countries traditional foods are being replaced by international fast foods.This is a negative effect on both families and societies. To what extent do youagree or disagree? (传统习俗。拓展：该不该穿民族服装、)
The government should control the amount of violence in films and on elevision inorder to decrease the violent crimes in society. To what extent do you agree ordisagree with this issue? (控制暴力。拓展：网络暴力信息的审查、电影与网络暴力)
Although it is a freedom to use tobacco(烟草) while some people think it should be made illegal asthe same way as other drugs. To what extent do you agree or disagree? What’s your opinion? (烟草与毒品。拓展：禁烟的必要性)
Today there is a great increase in anti-social behavior and lack of respect to others.What are the causes of this? What can be done to reduce it? (犯罪。拓展：犯罪全球化、青少年犯罪、重复犯罪、女孩犯罪、教育预防犯罪)
In many cities, planners have separated schools, homes, shops, offices in specificareas which were widely separated from each other. Do you think advantages ofthis policy overweigh disadvantages to the city residents? (建筑与规划。拓展：古迹保护、住房紧缺)
In modern worlds, the friendships between countries becomes much more importantthan before, because we should confront with a lot of affairs together. to whatextent you agree or disagree(国际关系。拓展：如何帮贫困国家、英语普及是否影响其他语言)
Some people believe that the best way to improve public health is by increasingthe number of sports facilities. Others think that this has little effect and othermeasures are required. Discuss both views and give your opinion.(公众健康。拓展：病人态度与医院治疗、情绪控制、人类健康)
The private motor vehicle has greatly improved individual freedom of movement. Moreover,the automobile has become a status symbol. Yet the use of private motorvehicles has contributed to some of today’s most serious problems. How can theuse of private motor vehicles be reduced? (交通。拓展：城市自行车、汽车利弊、交通拥堵治理)
Music play an important role in society, others think it is simply a form of entertainmentfor individuals. Discuss both and give your opinion.(音乐。)