为了让大家在雅思考试中取得好成绩,小编特意为大家带来了的雅思6阅读翻译PASSAGE 2 内容,希望能帮助大家在本次考试当中取得好成绩。以下是具体内容。

  PASSAGE 2 参考译文:

  Motivating Employees under Adverse Conditions

  在逆境中激励员工挑战

  THE CHALLENGE

  It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organisation than a declining one. When organisations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay rises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organisation create feelings of optimism. Management is able to use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organisation is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organisation can least afford to lose — those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited.

  挑战

  在不断壮大的企业中激励员工要比在日益衰落的企业中容易得多。当企业扩大经营和增加员工人数时,晋升机会增多,薪酬提高,而且加人一家充满活力的企业所带来的振奋感也会产生乐观向上的情绪。 管理层能够利用企业的发展来吸引和鼓舞员工。当企业衰退时,流动性最强的优秀员工就会主动离开。不幸的是,这些才能出众、经验丰富的员工正是企业最不能失去的人才。表现平庸的员工坚持留下,因为可供他们选择的职位有限。

  Morale also suffers during decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumours and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions. The ways of meeting this challenge can be broadly divided into six Key Points, which are outlined below.

  员工的士气在企业衰退期也会下降。人们担心自己或许就是下一个被解雇的人。生产率通常有所下降,因为员工宁愿将时间花费在传播谣言和相互提供精神支持上,也不愿意专注于工作。对工作稳定的人而言,加薪几乎是不可能的。在企业发展时期闻所未闻的减薪,此时甚至也会强制实施。管理层所面对的挑战是如何在企业衰退期激励员工。迎接这一挑战的方法可以大致分为下列六个关键点。

  KEY POINT ONE

  There is an abundance of evidence to support the motivational benefits that result from carefully matching people to jobs. For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business, high achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organisation, a candidate who has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation should be selected. Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that are inconsistent with their needs. High achievers will do best when the job provides moderately challenging goals and where there is independence and feedback. However, it should be remembered that not everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in independence, variety and responsibility.

  关键点一

  大量证据表明,切实做到人尽其才能够激发工作动力。例如,小型企业或大型企业中自主单位的经营者,应当由业绩杰出者担任。但是,如果空缺的是大型官僚机构的管理职位,则应当选择对权力需求髙而对关系需求低的人选。相应地,不能为业绩杰出者安排与其需求不一致的工作。只有当职位能够提供具有一定挑战性的目标,具有独立性,并提供反馈时,他们才会全力以赴地工作。然而,我们应当牢记并不是每个人都会被独立性强、形式多样和责任要求高的工作所激励。

  KEY POINT TWO

  The literature on goal-setting theory suggests that managers should ensure that all employees have specific goals and receive comments on how well they are doing in those goals. For those with high achievement needs, typically a minority in any organisation, the existence of external goals is less important because high achievers are already internally motivated. The next factor to be determined is whether the goals should be assigned by a manager or collectively set in conjunction with the employees. The answer to that depends on perceptions of goal acceptance and the organisation’s culture. If resistance to goals is expected, the use of participation in goal-setting should increase acceptance. If participation is inconsistent with the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the participation process as manipulative and be negatively affected by it.

  关键点二

  目标设定理论的相关文献提出,管理者们必须确保所有的员工都有明确的目标并且能够在实现该目标的过程中获得评价。追求卓越成就的人是所有企业中具有代表性的少数群体,对于他们而言,外部目标的存在并不十分重要,因为业绩杰出者已具有极强的内在动机。下一个要决定的因素是目标应由管理者指定,还是应由全体员工共同设定。答案取决于人们对目标的接受程度和企业文化。如果有可能出现对目标的抵制,在设定S标时鼓励员工参与就会提高接受的程度。然而,如果这种参与和企业文化相矛盾,则应当指定目标。如果参与和企业文化不一致,员工则有可能认为自己在参与过程中被操纵,并且受到负面影响。

  KEY POINT THREE

  Regardless of whether goals are achievable or well within management’s perceptions of the employee’s ability, if employees see them as unachievable they will reduce their effort. Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.

  关键点三

  无论目标是否能够实现,也无论目标是否在管理层认定的员工能力范围之内,只要员工们认为无法实现目标,他们就不会那么努力。因此,管理者必须确保员工相信他们的努力会使绩效目标实现。对于管理者而言,这意味着员工必须能够胜任工作,而且必须承认(绩效)评估流程的有效性。

  KEY POINT FOUR

  Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge of each employee to personalise the rewards over which they have control. Some of the more obvious rewards that managers allocate include pay, promotions, autonomy, job scope and depth, and the opportunity to participate in goal-setting and decision-making.

  关键点四

  由于员工们有不同的需求,所以对一个人产生强化效果的事物对于另一个人而言未必适用。在其控制范围内,管理者可以根据对不同员工的了解给予他们相应的奖励。管理者们可给予员工的奖励主要包括薪酬、晋升、自主权、业务范围和深度,以及参与目标设定和决策的机会。

  KEY POINT FIVE

  Managers need to make rewards contingent on performance. To reward factors other than performance will only reinforce those other factors. Key rewards such as pay increases and promotions or advancements should be allocated for the attainment of the employee’s specific goals. Consistent with maximising the impact of rewards, managers should look for ways to increase their visibility. Eliminating the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating everyone’s remuneration, publicising performance bonuses and allocating annual salary increases in a lump sum rather than spreading them out over an entire year are examples of actions that will make rewards more visible and potentially more motivating.

  关键点五

  管理者需要将奖励与绩效挂钩。除工作表现之外,对于其他方面的奖励只会使这些方面得到加强。诸如加薪和晋升这样的主要奖励应在员工实现特定目标后给予。与最大化奖励效果相一致,管理者应当设法增加奖励的公开性。例如,通过公示员工工资数目来消除薪酬的保密状态;公布绩效奖金数额;一次性支付年薪的增加额,而不是将其在全年中分别发放;这些方法可以增加奖励的公开性和潜在激励性。

  KEY POINT SIX

  The way rewards are distributed should be transparent so that employees perceive that rewards or outcomes are equitable and equal to the inputs given. On a simplistic level, experience, abilities, effort and other obvious inputs should explain differences in pay, responsibility and other obvious outcomes. The problem, however, is complicated by the existence of dozens of inputs and outcomes and by the fact that employee groups place different degrees of importance on them. For instance, a study comparing clerical and production workers identified nearly twenty inputs and outcomes. The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list, but these were at the bottom of the production workers’ list. Similarly, production workers thought that the most important inputs were intelligence and personal involvement with task accomplishment, two factors that were quite low in the importance ratings of the clerks. There were also important, though less dramatic, differences on the outcome side. For example, production workers rated advancement very highly, whereas clerical workers rated advancement in the lower third of their list. Such findings suggest that one person’s equity is another’s inequity, so an ideal should probably weigh different inputs and outcomes according to employee group.

  关键点六

  奖励的分配方式必须透明,使员工认识到奖励或成果是公平并且与特定投人相对等的。简而言之,经验、才能,努力及其他主要的投人应当体现在薪酬、职责和其他主要产出的差异方面。然而,问题之所以复杂,不仅是因为投人与产出有多种形式,而且还因为各员工群体对它们的重视程度不同。比如,一项究在比较行政工作人员和生产工人之后,确定了近二十种投人与产出的形式。行政工作人员基本上最重视所做工作的质量和业务知识等因素,但这正是生产工人们最不重视的。同样,生产工人们认为最重要的投人是才智和任务完成过程中的个人参与,而这两个因素在行政工作人员的重要性等级排名中则十分靠后。产出方面也有一些同样重要但不很明显的差异。例如,生产工人认为晋升非常重要,但行政工作人员却将晋升排到了重要性列表中的后三位。上述发现表明,一个人认为是公平的事物对于另一个人而言可能是不公平的。因此,理想的方式或许应当针对不同员工群体权衡不同的投人与产出。

  以上就是小编为大家整理的雅思6阅读翻译PASSAGE 2 的相关内容,希望能给广大考生带来帮助。更多有关剑桥雅思的资料尽在智课网

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