本次考试的文章是三篇旧文章 , 题材是关于家长教育参与度、博物馆巨作、莫扎特效应主要考察的题型为判断题、填空题、选择题。
Passage 2 :
Since the 1980s, the term “blockbuster” has become the fashionable word for special spectacular museum, art gallery or science centre exhibitions. Here is one of some existing definitions of blockbuster: put by Elsen, a blockbuster is a "large scale loan exhibition that people who normally don't go to museums will stand in line for hours to see". James Rosenfield, writing in Direct Marketing in 1993, has described a successful blockbuster exhibition as a "triumph of both curatorial and marketing kills" My own definition for blockbuster is "a popular, high profile exhibition on display for a limited period, that attracts the general public, who are prepared to both stand in line and pay a fee in order to partake in the exhibition." What both Elsen and Rosenfield omit in their descriptions of blockbusters can just easily apply to a movie or a museum exhibition.
Merely naming an exhibition or a movie a blockbuster however, does not make it a blockbuster. The term can only apply when the item in question has had an overwhelmingly successful response from the public. However, in literature from both the UK and USA, the other words that also start to appear in descriptions of blockbusters are "less scholarly", "non-elitist" and "popularist" Detractors argue that blockbusters are designed to appeal to the lowest common denominator, while others extol the virtues of encouraging scholars to cooporate on projects, and to provide exhibitions that eater for a broad selection of the community rather than an elite sector.
Maintaining and increasing visitor levels is paramount in the new museology. This requires continued product development, not only the creation or hiring of blockbuster exhibitions, but also regular exhibition changes and innovations. In addition, the visiting publics have become customers rather than visitors, and the skills that are valued in museums, science centres and galleries to keep the new customers coming through the door have changed. High on the list of requirements are commercial, business, marketing and entrepreneurial skills. Curators are now administrators. Being a director of an art gallery no longer requires an Art Degree. As succinctly summarised in the Economist in 1994, '"business nous and public relation skills" were essential requirements for a director, and also with the ability to compete with other museums to stage travelling exhibitions which draw huge crowds.
The new museology has resulted in the convergence of museums, the heritage industry, and tourism, profit-making and pleasure-giving. This has given rise to much debate about the appropriateness of adapting the activities of institutions so that they more closely reflect the priorities of the market place and whether it is appropriate to see museums primarily as tourist attractions At many institutions you can now hold office functions in the display areas, or have dinner with the dinosaurs. Whatever commentators may think, managers of museums, art galleries and science centres worldwide are looking for artful ways to blend culture and commerce, and blockbuster exhibitions are at the top of the list.
But while blockbusters are all part of the new museology, there is proof that you don’t need a museum, science centre or art gallery to benefit from the drawing power of a blockbuster or to stage a blockbuster.
But do blockbusters held in public institutions really create a surplus to fund other activities? If the bottom line is profit, then according to the accounting records of many major museums and galleries, blockbusters do make money For some museums overseas, it may be the money that they need to update parts of their collections or to repair buildings that are in need of attention. For others in Australia, it may be the opportunity to illustrate that they are attempting to pay their way, by recovering part of their operating costs, or funding other operating activities with off-budget revenue. This makes the economic rationalists cheerful. However, not all exhibitions that are hailed to be blockbusters will be blockbusters, and some will not make money. It is also unlikely that the accounting systems of most institutions will not recognise the real cost of either creating or hiring a blockbuster.
Blockbusters require large capital expenditure, and draw on resources across all branches of an organisation, however, the costs don’t end there. There is a human resource management cost in addition to a measurable “real” dollar cost. Receiving a touring exhibition involves large expenditure as well, and draws resources from across functional management structures in project management style. Everything from a general labourer to a building servicing unit, the front of house, technical, promotion, education and administration staff, are required to perform additional tasks. Furthermore, as an increasing number of institutions in Australia try their hand at increasing visitor numbers, memberships and therefore revenue, by staging blockbuster exhibitions, it may be less likely that blockbuster s will continue to provide a surplus to subsidise other activities due to the competitive nature of the market There are only so many consumer dollars to go around, and visitors will need to choose between blockbuster products.
Unfortunately, when the bottom-line is the most important objective to the mourning of blockbuster exhibitions, this same objective can be hard to maintain Creating, mounting or hiring blockbusters is exhausting for staff, with the real costs throughout an institution difficult to calculate. Although the direct aims may be financial, creating or hiring a blockbuster has many positive spin-offs: by raising their profile through a popular blockbuster exhibition, a museum will be seen in a more favorable light at budget time Blockbusters mean crowds, and crowds are good for the local economy, providing increased employment for shops, hotels, restaurants, the transport industry and retailers Blockbusters expose staff lo the vagaries and pressures of the market place, and may lead to creative excellence. Either the success or failure of a blockbuster may highlight the need for managers and policy makers to rethink their strategies. However, the new museology and the apparent trend towards blockbusters make it likely that museums, art galleries and particularly science centres will be seen as part of the entertainment and tourism industry, rather than as cultural icons deserving of government and philanthropic support.
Passage 3 :
The Mozart Effect
Music has been used for centuries to heal the body. In the Ebers Papyrs (one of the earliest medical documents, circa 1500 B.C.), it was recorded that physicians chanted to heal the sick (Castleman, 1994). In various cultures, we have observed singing as part of healing rituals. In the world of Western medicine, however, using music in medicine lost popularity until the introduction of the radio. Researchers then started to notice that listening to music could have significant physical effects. Therapists noticed music could help calm anxiety and researchers saw that listening to music could cause a drop in blood pressure. In addition to these two areas, music has been used with cancer chemotherapy to reduce nausea, during surgery to reduce stress hormone production, during childbirth, and in stroke recovery (Castleman, 1994 and Westley, 1998). It has been shown to decrease pain as well as enhance the effectiveness of the immune system. In Japan, compilations of music are used as medication, of sorts. For example, if you want to cure a headache or migraine, the album suggested Mendelssohn's ? Spring Song." Dvorak's "Humoresque." or part of George Gershwin's "An American in Paris” (Campbell. 1998). Music is also being used to assist in learning, in a phenomenon called the Mozart Effect
Frances H Rauscher. Ph. D, first demonstrated the correlation between music and learning in an experiment in 1993. His experiments indicated that a 10- minute dose of Mozart could temporarily boost intelligence. Groups of students were given intelligence tests after listening to silence. relaxation tapes, or Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major for a short time He found that after silence, the average IQ score was 110, and after the relaxation tape, scores rose a point After listening to Mozart, however, the scores jumped to 119 (Westley. 1998). Even students who did not like the music still had an increased score on the IQ test. Rauscher hypothesized that "listening to complex, non-repetitive music, like Mozart, may stimulate neural pathways that are important in thinking' (Castleman, 1994).
The same experiment was repeated on rats by Rauscher and Hong Li from Stanford. Rats also demonstrated enhancement in their intelligence performance. These new studies indicate that rats that were exposed to Mozart showed increased gene expression of BDNF (a neural growth factor). CRHB (a learning and memory compound), and Synapsin I (a synaplic growth protein) m the brain's hippocampus, compared with rats in the control group, which heard only white noise (e.g. the whooshing sound of a radio tuned between stations)
How exactly docs the Mozart effect work? Researchers are still trying to deter- mine the actual mechanisms for the formation of these enhanced learning pathways. Neuroscientists suspect that music can actually help build and strengthen connections between neurons in the cerebral cortex in a process similar to what occurs in brain development despite its type. When a baby is born, certain connections have already been made, like connections for heartbeat and breathing. As now information is learned and motor skills develop, new neural connections are formed. Neurons that are not used will eventually die while those used repeatedly will form strong connections. Although a large number of these neural connections require experience, they also must occur within a certain time frame. For example, a child born with cataracts cannot develop connections within the visual cortex. If the cataracts are removed by surgery right away, the child's vision develops normally. However, after the age of 2, if the cataracts are removed, the child will remain blind because those pathways cannot establish themselves.
Music seems to work in the same way. In October 7, researchers at the University of Konstanz, in Germany found that music actually rewires neural circuits (Begley, 1996). Although some of these circuits are formed for physical skills needed to play an instrument, just listening to music strengthens connection used in higher-order thinking Listening to music can then be thought of as “exercise” for the brain, improving concentration and enhancing intuition.
If you're a little skeptical about the claims made by supporters of the Mozart Effect, you're not alone. Many people accredit the advanced learning of some children who take music lessons to other personality traits, such as motivation and persistence, which is required in all types of learning. There have also been claims of that influencing the results of some experiments.
Furthermore, many people are critical of the role the media had in turning an isolated study into a trend for parents and music educators. After Mozart Effect was published to the public, the sales of Mozart CDs stayed on the top of the hit list for three weeks. In an article by Michael Linton, he wrote that the research that began this phenomenon (the study by researchers at the University of California Irvine) showed only a temporary boost in IQ, which was not significant enough to even last throughout the course of the experiment. Using music to influence intelligence was used in Confucian civilization and Plato alluded to Pythagorean music when he described is ideal state in The Republic. In both of these examples, music did not have caused any overwhelming changes, and the theory eventually died out. Linton also asks. "If Mozart's Music were able to improve health, why was Mozart himself so frequently sick? If listening to Mozart's music increases intelligence and encourages spirituality, why aren't the world's smartest and most spiritual people Mozart specialists?” Linton raises an interesting point, if the Mozart Effect causes such significant changes, why isn't there more document evidence?
H The "trendiness” of the Mozart Effect may have died out somewhat, but there are still strong supporters (and opponents) of the claims made in 1993. Since that initial experiment, there has not been a surge of supporting evidence. However, many parents, after playing classical music while pregnant or when their children are young, will swear by the Mozart Effect. A classmate of mine once told me that listening to classical music while studying will help with memorization. If we approach this controversy from a scientific aspect, although there has been some evidence that music does increase brain activity, actual improvements in learning and memory have not been adequately demonstrated.
Reading Passage 9 has eight paragraphs A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-M in boxes 1-5 On your answer sheet.
27 A description or how music affects the brain development of infants
28 Public's first reaction to the discovery of Mozart Effect
29 The description of Rauscher’s original experiment
30 The description of using music for healing in other countries
31 other qualities needed in all learning
Complete the summary below
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer Write your answers in boxes 6—8 On your answer sheet
During the experiment conducted by Frances Rauscher, subjects were exposed to the music for a 32_________ period of time before they were tested. And Rauscher believes the enhancement in their performance is related to the 33_________ nature of Mozart music. Later, similar experiment was also repeated on 34_________.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 9?
In boxes 9-13 On your answer sheet write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
35. All kinds of music can enhance one's brain performance to somewhat extent
36. There is no neural connection made when a baby is born.
37. There are very few who question Mozart Effect.
38. Michael Linton conducted extensive research on Mozart's life.
39. There is not enough evidence in support of Mozart Effect today.