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  Questions 1-5  Reading Passage 1 has six paragraphs A-F .

  Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-F from the list of headings below.

  Write the appropriate numbers i-viii in boxes 1 - 5 on your answer sheet.

  List of Headings

  i The plaintiffs?viewpoints on regulating emission

  ii Federal government being taken to court

  iii Possible impact of the case on other lawsuits

  iv Regulating air pollution by twelve States

  v Stance of the Bush administration

  vi Viewpoints of Bill Clinton on regulation

  vii The call for emission caps and reduction

  viii Uncertainty in ruling by the Supreme Court

  Example Answer

  Paragraph A ii

  1. Paragraph B _____

  2. Paragraph C _____

  3. Paragraph D_____

  4. Paragraph E _____

  5. Paragraph F _____

  Green states take the federal government to court

  Nov 30th 2006

  From The Economist print edition

  A WHEN the subject is global warming,the villain is usually America . Although it produces a quarter of the greenhouse gases that are heating up the planet,it refuses to regulate them. When other countries agreed on an international treaty to do so——he Kyoto protocol——America failed to ratify it. But not all American officialdom is happy with the federal government's stance. In fact,12 states disagree so fiercely that they are suing to force it to curb emissions of carbon dioxide,the most common greenhouse gas. The Supreme Court heard argument in the case on November 29th. The outcome will not be known for months,but the political wind seems to be shifting in favour of firmer action to counter climate change.

  B The Clean Air Act charges the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with regulating air pollution from vehicles. But the EPA argues that Congress did not intend to include CO2 under that heading,and that to do so would extend the EPA's authority to an unreasonable extent. Furthermore,it contends that regulating emissions would not do good unless all or most other countries did the same. That is in keeping with the policies of President George Bush,who opposes mandatory curbs on emissions and believes that any international accord on global warming should apply to all countries——unlike the Kyoto protocol,which exempts poor ones,including big polluters such as China and India . Ten states,among them gas-guzzling Texas and car-making Michigan,also back the EPA.

  C The plaintiffs comprise 12 states,three cities,various NGOs,and American Samoa,a Pacific territory in danger of vanishing beneath the rising ocean. They are supported by a further six states,two power companies,a ski resort,and assorted clergymen,Indian tribes and agitated grandees such as Madeleine Albright,a former secretary of state. They point out that under the administration of Bill Clinton,the EPA decided that it did have the authority to regulate CO2. The act,they note,says the EPA should regulate any air pollutant that "may reasonably be interpreted to endanger public health or welfare". It goes on to define public welfare to include "effects on soils,water,crops,vegetation,manmade materials,animals,wildlife,weather,visibility,and climate".

  D The Supreme Court may give a mixed ruling,decreeing that carbon dioxide is indeed a pollutant,but one the EPA is free to ignore or regulate as it pleases. Or it might dismiss the complaint on the grounds that the plaintiffs did not have the right to lodge it in the first place. In theory,they must prove that the EPA's foot-dragging has caused them some specific harm that regulation might remedy——a tall order in a field as fraught with uncertainty as climatology. Even if the court found in the plaintiffs' favour,rapid change is unlikely. By the time the EPA had implemented such a ruling,Congress would probably have superseded it with a new law.

  E That is the point,environmental groups say. They want Congress to pass a law tackling global warming,and hope that a favourable court ruling will jolly the politicians along. Moreover,the case has a bearing on several other bitterly-contested lawsuits. Carmakers,for example,are trying to get the courts to strike down a Californian state law based on certain provisions of the Clean Air Act that require them to reduce their vehicles' CO2 emissions. If the Supreme Court decides that the act does not apply to CO2,then the Californian law would also be in jeopardy. That,in turn, would scupper the decision of ten other states to adopt the same standard.

  F However the Supreme Court rules,many state governments are determined to tackle climate change. California is in the vanguard. Its legislature has passed a law that will cap and then reduce industrial emissions of greenhouse gases. Seven eastern states have formed the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative,which will treat emissions from power plants the same way. Almost 400 mayors have signed an agreement to cut their cities' emissions in line with Kyoto . Many businesses,even some power companies,would rather see regulation now than prolonged uncertainty. And several of the leading contenders for 2008's presidential election are much keener on emissions caps than Mr Bush. Change is in the air.

  Questions 6-9  Do the following statements reflect the views of the writer in the reading passage?

  In boxes 6 - 9 on your answer sheet write

  YES if the statement reflects the views of the writer

  NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

  NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage

  6. Texas and Michigan are among the 12 states which call for regulating air pollution.

  7. An American island is in danger of disappearing beneath the rising ocean.

  8. The plaintiffs can prove that the EPA抯 foot-dragging has caused them harm that the regulation might remedy.

  9. The Supreme Court's ruling may influence the results of other lawsuits.

  Questions 10-13  Answer the following questions with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS each in boxes 10 - 13.

  10. What country produces 25% of the world's greenhouse gases?

  11. Which president opposes mandatory curbs on emission, George Bush or Bill Clinton?

  12. Who are trying to get the courts to strike down a Californian state law that require them to reduce their vehicles' CO2 emissions?

  13. What would some power companies rather see than prolonged uncertainty at present?

  Key and Explanations:

  1. v ( See para.B: Furthermore, it(EPA) contends that regulating emissions would not do good unless all or most other countries did the same. That is in keeping with the policies of President George Bush. )

  2. i (See para.C: They point out that……he EPA decided that it did have the authority to regulate CO2. The act?says the EPA should regulate any air pollutant that 搈ay reasonably be interpreted to endanger public health or welfare? )

  3. viii (See para.D: The Supreme Court may give a mixed ruling, decreeing that carbon dioxide is indeed a pollutant, but one the EPA is free to ignore or regulate as it pleases. Or it might dismiss the complaint on the grounds that the plaintiffs did not have the right to lodge it in the first place. )

  4. iii (See para.E: Moreover, the case has a bearing on several other bitterly-contested lawsuits. )

  5. vii 牋 (See para.F:…… many state governments are determined to tackle climate change. And several of the leading contenders for 2008's presidential election are much keener on emissions caps than Mr Bush. )

  6. No. ? (See para.B, lines 11-12: Ten states, among them gas-guzzling Texas and car-making Michigan, also back 支持 the EPA. )

  7. Yes. ? (See para.C, lines 2-3: American Samoa , a Pacific territory in danger of vanishing beneath the rising ocean )

  8. Not Given. ? (See para.D, Lines 5-6: In theory, they must prove that the EPA's foot-dragging has caused them some specific harm that regulation might remedy——a tall order in a field as fraught with uncertainty as climatology )

  9. Yes. ? (See para.E, lines 3-4: 楼主

  9. Yes. (See para.E, lines 3-4: the case has a bearing意义 on several other bitterly-contested lawsuits.)

  10. America / The U.S. (See para.A, lines 1-3: When the subject is global warming, the villain is usually America. Although it produces a quarter of the greenhouse gases that are heating up the planet, it refuses to regulate them.)

  11. George Bush (See para.B, line 7: That is in keeping with the policies of President George Bush, who opposes mandatory curbs on emissions)

  12. Carmakers (See para.E , lines 4-7: Carmakers, for example, are trying to get the courts to strike down a Californian state law based on certain provisions of the Clean Air Act that require them to reduce their vehicles' CO2 emissions.)

  13. Regulation (See para.F, lines 8-7: Many businesses, even some power companies, would rather see regulation now than prolonged uncertainty.)

  Notes:

  1. Kyoto Protocol: 京都议定书

  2. That is in keeping with the policies of President George Bush,who opposes mandatory curbs on emissions and believes that any international accord on global warming should apply to all countries—unlike the Kyoto protocol,which exempts poor ones,including big polluters such as China and India. 那与布什总统的政策保持一致。布什反对对排放采取强制手段,认为任何有关全球变暖的国际条约都应适用于所有的国家而不是像京都议定书那样免除包括中国和印度这样的大的污染制造者在内的贫穷国家的义务。

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