2. too many cars
3. insufficient roads
4. unreasonable design of infrastructure
5. people’s awareness
6. driving offenders
8. rules and regulations
Topic sentence: There are several factors causing traffic jams.
Explanation 1: The leading contributor is overpopulation, which leads to too many cars available even though more roads have been constructed. The situation will be worse if the infrastructure is not reasonably designed.
Explanation 2: Apart from these objective reasons, part of the blame should be laid on people’s awareness. There are many driving offenders either because they are drunk or they do not think it important to keep to the traffic rules and regulations.
Explanation 3: Besides, the police’s supervision also plays an essential role. If they do not manage well, traffic jams are more likely to occur.
列举法是一种快速成文的有效途径。常用于列举法的过渡连接词及短语有：for one thing, for another, finally, besides, moreover, one another, still another, first, second, also等。
如：It is undeniable that mobile phones have facilitated our lives in many different ways. For example, when an emergency occurs, such as a traffic accident or a violent crime, mobile phones can help the victims to call the police or an ambulance immediately for help. 本例中，for example引出例子论证“mobile phones have facilitated our lives in many different ways.” 而后面的such as则引出emergency的具体形式。For instance与它的用法完全相同，即后面要接句子例证。举例法中常用的连接词及短语有：for example / instance, one example is, besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition等。
三、对比对照法：(comparison and contrast)
Those who believe in the measure say that students benefit a lot from traveling or working for a year before their formal university education. First, they can more broadly acquaint themselves with the society, deepen their understanding of the outside world, and thus better coordinate their objectives of learning with the needs of the society. In contrast, by immediate entrance to university they cannot steer the direction of their study well and may display a poor combination of the theory with practice. Second, study at high school is really exhausting, especially when to win college admission. So it is necessary to grant these children a relatively long period of relaxation or buffer, say, traveling or working for a year, to loosen the chords of their brain, so that when they go back to school later again, they can become completely refreshed and rejuvenated.
The role of women in today's society is changing. One reason is that women have begun to assert themselves as independent people through the women's movement. Also, women are aware of the alternatives to staying at home. Another reason is that increasing numbers of women who enter new fields and interests serve as role models for other women. Moreover, men are becoming more conscious of the abilities of women and have begun to view their independence positively.