在雅思写作大作文考试中,通常会要求各位考生去表达自己的观点,并且对这个观点进行论证,让自己的观点更有说服力。接下来小编给大家分享的是雅思写作大作文多种论证方法,希望各位考生。能结合练习掌握这些方法,帮助我们写出更全面的作文。

  一、列举法(details)

  列举法,是通过列举一系列的论据对topic sentence中提出的论点进行广泛、全面地陈述或解释,列举的顺序可以按照从主要到次要的方法等进行。比如是什么因素导致了交通堵塞,brainstorm后得到以下论据:

  1. over-population

  2. too many cars

  3. insufficient roads

  4. unreasonable design of infrastructure

  5. people’s awareness

  6. driving offenders

  7. police

  8. rules and regulations

  要使用列举的方式,可以将上述论据进行分类,前4点可作为客观原因,5、6两条可作为主观原因,比较后两条可以作为政府的宏观管理问题。那么这篇文章的主题段落就可以写成下面的形式:

  Topic sentence: There are several factors causing traffic jams.

  Explanation 1: The leading contributor is overpopulation, which leads to too many cars available even though more roads have been constructed. The situation will be worse if the infrastructure is not reasonably designed.

  Explanation 2: Apart from these objective reasons, part of the blame should be laid on people’s awareness. There are many driving offenders either because they are drunk or they do not think it important to keep to the traffic rules and regulations.

  Explanation 3: Besides, the police’s supervision also plays an essential role. If they do not manage well, traffic jams are more likely to occur.

  列举法是一种快速成文的有效途径。常用于列举法的过渡连接词及短语有:for one thing, for another, finally, besides, moreover, one another, still another, first, second, also等。

  二、举例法(example)

  举例法,是指通过举出具体事例来阐述、说明主题句的内容。严格来说,举例法也是列举法的一种,它们的区别在于:列举法侧重罗列事实,所列事实力求全面;而举例法侧重通过举出典型事例来解释作者观点,且事例可多可少。

  如:It is undeniable that mobile phones have facilitated our lives in many different ways. For example, when an emergency occurs, such as a traffic accident or a violent crime, mobile phones can help the victims to call the police or an ambulance immediately for help. 本例中,for example引出例子论证“mobile phones have facilitated our lives in many different ways.” 而后面的such as则引出emergency的具体形式。For instance与它的用法完全相同,即后面要接句子例证。举例法中常用的连接词及短语有:for example / instance, one example is, besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition等。

  三、对比对照法:(comparison and contrast)

  通过比较和对比方式来论证,这样两个事物、行为或者观点的利弊就非常明显了。

  Those who believe in the measure say that students benefit a lot from traveling or working for a year before their formal university education. First, they can more broadly acquaint themselves with the society, deepen their understanding of the outside world, and thus better coordinate their objectives of learning with the needs of the society. In contrast, by immediate entrance to university they cannot steer the direction of their study well and may display a poor combination of the theory with practice. Second, study at high school is really exhausting, especially when to win college admission. So it is necessary to grant these children a relatively long period of relaxation or buffer, say, traveling or working for a year, to loosen the chords of their brain, so that when they go back to school later again, they can become completely refreshed and rejuvenated.

  这篇文章是对上大学前是否应该用一年的时间来旅游或者工作进行论证。此段的主题是学生在进入大学学习之前花一年时间进行旅游或工作的话,会让他们受益匪浅。对比点是:进入大学之前一年进行旅游或工作有利于让学生广泛了解社会,加深他们对外界的理解,因此能让他们更好地协调好学习目标和社会需要。相对比之下,直接进入大学学习的话,他们不能够把握学习的方向,而且有可能会产生理论和实践相脱节的情况。通过此番对比,旅游或工作一年对于即将步入大学的学生们的好处是显而易见的,段落的主题句得到了有力的论证。

  四、解释法(explanation)

  在阐述某一现象的段落中,常采用解释法。如:

  The role of women in today's society is changing. One reason is that women have begun to assert themselves as independent people through the women's movement. Also, women are aware of the alternatives to staying at home. Another reason is that increasing numbers of women who enter new fields and interests serve as role models for other women. Moreover, men are becoming more conscious of the abilities of women and have begun to view their independence positively.

  本段中,主题句提出了一种社会现象,扩展句则对产生这种现象的原因作出了各种解释。

  以上是小编为大家分享的“雅思写作大作文多种论证方法分享”相关内容,希望大家通过阅读本文,从中有所收获。在这里小编也希望各位考生能通过不懈的努力,顺利通过雅思写作考试。


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