For more than 40 years, Practical Action have worked with poor communities to identify the types of transport that work best, taking into consideration culture, needs and skills. With our technical and practical support, isolated rural communities can design, build and maintain their own solutions.
A Whilst the focus of National Development Plans in the transport sector lies heavily in the areas of extending road networks and bridges, there are still major gaps identified in addressing the needs of poorer communities. There is a need to develop and promote the sustainable use of alternative transport systems and intermediate means of transportation (IMTs) that complement the linkages of poor people with road networks and other socio-economic infrastructures to improve their livelihoods.
B On the other hand, the development of all weathered roads (only 30 percent of rural population have access to this so far) and motorable bridges are very costly for a country with a small and stagnant economy. In addition these interventions are not always favourable in all geographical contexts environmentally, socially and economically. More than 60 percent of the network is concentrated in the lowland areas of the country. Although there are a number of alternative ways by which transportation and mobility needs of rural communities in the hills can be addressed, a lack of clear government focus and policies, lack of fiscal and economic incentives, lack of adequate technical knowledge and manufacturing capacities have led to under-development of this alternative transport sub-sector including the provision of IMTs.
C One of the major causes of poverty is isolation. Improving the access and mobility of the isolated poor paves the way for access to markets, services and opportunities. By improving transport poorer people are able to access markets where they can buy or sell goods for income, and make better use of essential services such as health and education. No proper roads or vehicles mean women and children are forced to spend many hours each day attending to their most basic needs, such as collecting water and firewood. This valuable time could be used to tend crops, care for the family, study or develop small business ideas to generate much needed income.
D Road Building
Without roads, rural communities are extremely restricted. Collecting water and firewood, and going to local markets is a huge task, therefore it is understandable that the construction of roads is a major priority for many rural communities. Practical Action are helping to improve rural access/transport infrastructures through the construction and rehabilitation of short rural roads, small bridges, culverts and other transport related functions. The aim is to use methods that encourage community driven development. This means villagers can improve their own lives through better access to markets, health care, education and other economic and social opportunities, as well as bringing improved services and supplies to the now-accessible villages.
E Driving forward new ideas
Practical Action and the communities we work with are constantly crafting and honing new ideas to help poor people. Cycle trailers have a practical business use too, helping people carry their goods, such as vegetables and charcoal, to markets for sale. Not only that, but those on the poverty-line can cam a decent income by making, maintaining and operating bicycle taxis. With Practical Action's know-how. Sri Lankan communities have been able to start a bus service and maintain the roads along which it travels. The impact has been remarkable. This service has put an end to rural people's social isolation Quick and affordable, it gives them a reliable way to travel to the nearest town, and now their children can get an education, making it far more likely they'll find a path out of poverty. Practical Action is also an active member of many national and regional networks through which exchange of knowledge and advocating based on action research arc carried out and one conspicuous example is the Lanka Organic Agriculture Movement.
F Sky-scraping transport system
For people who live in remote, mountainous areas, getting food to market in order to earn enough money to survive is a serious issue. The hills are so steep that travelling down them is dangerous. A porter can help but they are expensive, and it would still take hours or even a day. The journey can take so long that their goods start to perish and become worth less and less. Practical Action have developed an ingenious solution called an aerial ropeway. It can cither operate by gravitation force or with the use of external power. The ropeway consists of two trolleys rolling over support tracks connected to a control cable in the middle which moves in a traditional flywheel system. The trolley at the top is loaded with goods and can take up to 120kg. This is pulled down to the station at the bottom, either by the force of gravity or by external power. The other trolley at the bottom is therefore pulled upwards automatically. The external power can be produced by a micro hydro system if access to an electricity grid is not an option.
G Bringing people on board
Practical Action developed a two-wheeled iron trailer that can be attached via a hitch behind the scat) to a bicycle and be used to carry heavy loads (up to around 200kgs) of food, water or even passengers. People can now carry three tunes as much as before and still pedal the bicycle. The cycle trailers are used for transporting goods by local producers, as ambulances, as mobile shops, and even as mobile libraries. They are made in small village workshops from iron tubing, which is cut, bent, welded and drilled to make the frame and wheels. Modifications are also carried out to the trailers in these workshops at the request of the buyers. The two-wheeled 'ambulance' is made from moulded metal, with standard rubber-tyred wheels. The "bed" section can be padded with cushions to make the patient comfortable, while the "seat" section allows a family member to attend to patient during transit. A dedicated bicycle is needed to pull the ambulance trailer, so that other community members do not need to go without the bicycles they depend on in their daily lives. A joining mechanism allows for easy removal and attachment. In response to user comments, a cover has been designed that can be added to give protection to the patient and attendant in poor weather Made of treated cotton, the cover is durable and waterproof.
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage1?
In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement is true
NO if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
1. A slow developing economy often cannot afford some road networks especially for those used regardless weather conditions.
2. Rural communities' officials know how to improve alternative transport technically.
3. The primary aim for Practical Action to improve rural transport infrastructures is meant to increase the trade among villages.
4. Lanka Organic Agriculture Movement provided service that Practical Action highly involved in.
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet.
5. WHAT is the first duty for many rural communities to reach unrestricted development?
6. WHAT was one of the new ideas to help poor people carry their goods, such as vegetables and charcoal, to markets for sale?
7. WHAT service has put an end to rural people's social isolation in Sri Lanka?
8. WHAT solution had been applied for people who live in remote, mountainous areas getting food to market?
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet.
Besides normal transport task, changes are also implemented to the trailers in these workshops at the request of the buyers when it was used on medical emergency or a moveable 9 ; 'Ambulance' is made from metal, with rubber wheels and drive by another bicycle. When put with 10 in the two-wheeled 'ambulance', the patient can stay comfortable and which another 11 can sit on caring for patient in transport journey. In order to dismantle or attach other equipment, an assembling 12 is designed. Later, as user's suggest, 13 has also been added to give a protection to the patient.
文章题目：Rural Transport Plan of “Practical Action“
A 段 国家发展计划的交通部门重心的不足及解决方案
B 段 交通发展的不利现状
C 段 封闭造成的贫穷及提高交通的解决方式
D 段 公路建设的必要性
E 段 提出新主意及积极案例
F 段 新主意的特别案例摩天大楼交通体系
G 段 新主意的特别案例将人们带到车上
题目类型：true /false/not given
题目类型：short answer questions
Road network 对应文章第2段，第2句话第2段段首引出话题，development of
All weathered road 公路，are costly for a country with small and stagnant economy. 说经济对发展road的代价重，第2句话，this..is not favourable 不支持对应a选项的can not affort. in all geographical contexts environmentally对应选项中的weather condition
…,and economically 对应选项的economy
2Rural community official ，Alternative transport 对应文章第b段第4句话Although there are a number alternative ways by which transportation and …of rural communities can be addressed, a lack of clear government focus and policies…lack of technical knowledge
Official 对应 government， Alternative transport technically对应 alternative ways by which transportation及 technical knowledge 对应句子
lack of 因此是否定 no
Trade对应文章第d段 文章提到了practical action are helping improve rural access aim transport
Infrastructure也提到了 the aim
因此 not given
Lanka organic agricultural movement对应文章e段E段最后一段说了practical action is also an active member of networks ,and one example is the Lanka organic agricultural movement
Unrestricted development 对应d段落的第一句话，第2句话Without road，rural communities are restricted,说明修路就不限制了，以及第2句明确说了construction of road is a major priority首要
因此答案是 construction of road
vegetable对应 e段第2句话Cycle trailer has a practical business use too, helping people carry vegetable…
因此答案 Cycle trailer
Sri lankan定位到e段第4句话Sri lankan community have been able to start a bus service ..及后面说this service has put an end the rural people’ social isolation
因此答案是 bus service
Remote mountain area
Food 对应f段 第1句第5句第1句提到了这个提干的问题，但是解决方案没有提到，第5句明确说了 solution called aerial ropeway
因此答案 aerial ropeway
9Trailer, medical emergency ,
定位到第3句the cycle trailer are used for transporting goods by..mobile shops
And libraries 其中mobile 表示移动的对应题Moveable 可移动的
因此答案是 shops libraries
Comfortable 对应原文g段Bed section.. with cushion to make the patient comfortable .
Care for patient对应原文g段While the seat section allow a family member to attend the patient
Attend= Care for
照顾照料因此答案是 其中sit是动词前面缺少主语 只有 family member can sit
因此答案是 family member
12Attach Other equipment
Assembling 对应原文g段A joining mechanism allow for easiy removal and attachment 其中 allow 对应 in order
to joining对应 Assembling连接的
protection对应原文g段因此定位到a cover has been designed that can be added to give protection…
D没有公路，农村社区就被完全限制住了。连收集水和木材，去当地市场都成了一个艰巨的事情。因此不难理解对大多数农村社区而言，建造公路(construction of road)就是一项主要的任务。通过建设和恢复较短的农村公路，小桥梁，排水渠以及其他与交通相关的设备，“实践行动”方案正在帮助改进农村的交通基本设施。该方案的目标是使用一些方法，鼓励社区能动地发展。也就是说，村民们可以更好地接触市场，健康医护，教育和其他社会经济机会，把改善的服务提供给那些可通行的乡村，以此来提高自身的生活水平。
E“实践行动”方案，以及我们所合作的社区都不停地构思琢磨出新的点子， 来帮助穷苦的人群。拖车(cycle trailers)有一个实际的商务用途：帮助人们运输蔬菜，煤炭等商品到市场区售卖，所以通过制造，维护，运作出租车，那些处于贫困线的人们便能够从中賺不少钱。在“实践行动”方案提供专业知识的帮助下，斯里兰卡社会开始了 一个巴士服务(bus service)，并且维护着沿途的公路。 该影响是巨大的，结束了农村人民的与世隔绝。又快又便宜，提供了人民一个可靠的方式旅行到最近的城镇;孩子们受到了教育，也就更有可能找到了一条摆脱 貧困的路线。“实践行动”方案也促进了很多家道路网络和地方道路网路通达， 基于行动研究的知识交换也得以执行了，其中一个特别引人注目的案例就是斯里 兰卡有机农业运动。
F对于生活在偏远山区的人们而言，把食物运到市场以获得收入而生存下去是 一件特别重要的事情。山脉太陡峭了，攀山越岭都是件危险的事情。是可以聘请运货工，但毕竟代价不菲。即便如此，依然要花数个小时甚至是一天的时间来翻山越岭。路程花费时间过长，商品开始腐坏，开始逐渐貶值。“实践忏动”方案想出了一个聪明的法子，名字叫做空中索道(aerial rope)。空中索道利用地心引力运作或者通过外部能量运作，控制缆绳在中间，以传统的飞轮方式移动，两个缆车则在支撑的轨道上滚动。位于顶部的缆车装载货物，可达120公斤，而后通过地心引力或者外部能量拉到站台。另外一个位于底部的缆车因此也就自动地往上移。如果无法利用电网，外在能量则可以由微型水动力系统产生。
G“实践行动”方案发展了两轮铁拖车，通过座位后的钩子，铁拖车可以附着在自行车上，用于运输较重的食物，水，甚至是乘客总计可以高达200公斤)。 依然踩着自行车，人们可以运输之前三倍的货物量。拖车被当地的制造商用来进行各类运输，诸如被当做救护车，移动商店，甚至是移动图书馆。拖车是在小山村作坊中以铁管制成的。通过切割，弯曲，焊接，穿孔，制作出了框架和轮子。也会根据买家的要求进行一些修改。两轮的救护车由磨具浇灌的金属做成，带着标准的橡胶轮子，“床”的部分铺着坐垫使病人感到舒服：而“座位”的部分使得家人得以在转移时照看病人。需要专门的拉车来拉动救护拖车，所以人们也就不必割舍日常生活依赖的自行车。装卸体系使得拆装变得容易。出于客户的要求， 人们设计了一个盖子，在天气恶劣到时候来保护病人和看护人员。盖子由处理过的棉花做成，可以防水，经久耐用。
Version 17102 主题 “实践行动”交通
1YES 2NO 3NOT GIVEN
4YES 5construction of roads 6cycle trailers
7a bus service 8an aerial ropeway 9shops/shops and libraries
10cushions 11family member 12mechanism
13 a cover