在剑桥中表示转折和对比的信号词是*重要的一类,因为只要此类词一出现,80%的时候答案就紧随其后了。这类词大致有:however、but、unfortunately、yet、while、whereas、on the other hand、on the contrary、in fact、actually等等。比如:Cambridge8 test2 section2的18题:What is the main purpose of having the Rare Breeds Section? 听力原文中说到:…we mustn’t lose sight of the main purpose of having this section, not as such to preserve rare animals but to maintain the diversity of breeds to broaden the gene pool for agricultural development. 在实际的听力中,这一段话很快,很多学生第*遍根本没有听到否定的not,但是请大家注意的是后面还有一个but,所以听到转折后,前面所说的信息就可以忽略掉了。再如:Cambridge8 test1 section2的19-20题:Which two activities can students do after the tour at present? 原文:We used to have an activity room with more interactive things like making models of dinosaurs and drawing and painting pictures, even hunting for dinosaur eggs, but unfortunately the room was damaged in a bad storm… 同样有的学生可能会漏听到原文中的used to,但是后面有明显的转折,所以前面提到的项可以全部排除了。


  有时候学生做题的时候发现,明明关键词已经出来了,但是答案还是选错了。那么这类题中有另外一些表示特别强调和突出的信号词,如:particularly、in particular、especially、more importantly、even、that is to say、to put it another word、surprisingly、much to my surprise等等。这类词出现后,100%后面都是答案。比如:Cambridge8 test4 section2的11题:Community groups are mainly concerned about: A. pedestrian safety B. traffic jams C. increased pollution. 原文:People we’ve heard from are mainly worried about traffic in the area, and in particular, the increasing speed of cars near schools… 原文中学生很明显地听到了mainly,所以就迫不及待的选了C,但是后面还有强调,这个才是*关键的。再如Cambridge7 test4 section4的31题:The speaker says the main topic of the lecture is? 原文:Today I am going to explore why it is so popular in these cuisines and, more importantly, how does it enhance the flavor of good? 这类词在剑桥中出现的频率没有第*类高,但是一旦出现就是答案,所以请大家要牢记这类词。


  这类信号词其实后面大多是没有跟答案出现的,但是这类词是帮助同学们跟上节奏的关键。也就是说不至于一直死死守着一道题,而其实都已经是end of section4了。这类词一般出现在section4,有:firstly、secondly、finally、next、moving on to…、and then、the next point…、for another thing等等。比如:Cambridge7 test3 section4的38和39题原文:Firstly, hotels exploit people’s need to… Secondly, there is something very powerful… 另外Cambridge5 test2 section4的38和39题原文:A second important area is monitoring the size… Thirdly, bubbles in the ice-sheet… 在section 4中,此类表示承接的信号词屡见不鲜,虽然它后面一般不直接接答案,但是它能告知学生整个听力的进度,而且答案就在附近,所以请同学们不要忽视。




  “剑桥雅思真题集8”里的Test 1,Section 4

  aerial photos

  -can show vegetation problems, ____density, ocean floor etc.

  原文:You can easily illustrate areas of diseased trees or how much traffic is on the roads at a given time or information about deep sea beds, for example.

  分析:这道Section 4 的填空题难倒大部分同学的原因是基本都是因为生词和同义替换。

  首先,一些同学可能不认识density 这个单词,或者下意识的认为像”vegetation”,”density”和”ocean”这样的名词会有原词重现,所以听音的时候很容易直接错过答案位置。


  第一,不认识density 的同学按照后缀应该不难看出这是个名词,那么根据前后的并列成分的词性就可以预测出空格词也是名词,然后通过审题我们能看到题干是三个名词短语并列,这样在听的时候我们可以定位到第一个并列信号的后面,这样一来答案句就可以缩小在or 的后面也就是”howmuch traffic is on the roads at a given time”这一句之内,那么不难判断这句话强调的是在给定时间内道路上的车流量多少,主要是强调traffic的问题,所以答案词就是traffic。

  总结:本题的同义替换是用一个句式how much…at a given… 替换了density (密度)这个单词。就算很多认识density 的同学往往在听的时候也比较难识别出这个替换。

  所以我们可以利用听并列信号词这个方法去更快和更准确地定位到答案句。除了or 之外类似的并列信号词还有and, also, as well as, at the same time 等。这一篇section 4 还有好几道填空题也可以利用这个规则帮助大家做题,建议同学们可以好好练习一下。



  下面我们来一起看一个例子。“剑桥雅思真题集11”里的Test 1,Section 1

  During the event

  -The band should use the _____ door at the back.

  原文:Well, they'll have a lot of equipment, so rather than using the front door they should park their van round the back and use the stage door there.

  分析:这道Section 1的填空题如果是放在阅读题中的话答案是非常明显的,可以说完全就是送分题,但是在听力中就摇身一变,成了一道很容易丢分的题目。

  相信大家如果是看到”rather than”肯定不难知道它的意思是“而不是”,不过在做听力题的时候我们的耳朵往往会忽略它或者是听到之后大脑中反应不过来它的转折或否定含义从而直接填了front这个单词。其实当我们听题时准确抓出rather than 之后,就可以很轻松的填出stage这个答案了。

  总结:不是大家的词汇量积累,而是对常见转折信号词的积累以及耳朵对于rather than 这个发音的敏感度,特别是than 的弱读[e(?)n] ,这样在听题的过程中才能抓住重点。

  常见的转折信号词有but, however, although , despite, inspite of, instead of 等, 另外, 否定词其实也是转折信号的一种,同学们在听的时候一定要注意其中一些词的发音特点,例如wouldn't这个词真正在句子中很多情况下d和t都是不发音的。



  第一类 表并列或举例

  and ,in addition to ,one more thing , what's more, furthermore, moreover, besides , either , also , too, as well as ,for instance , for example, such as like ,likewise , similarly ,together.

  第二类 表转折或对比

  Although /though, as a matter of fact , instead ,instead of ,however ,but, otherwise, while ,nevertheless ,despite ,in spite of , on the contrary ,by/in contrast, on the other hand , yet ,whereas.

  第三类 表顺序

  First, second ,third ,last but not least, in the middle , after ,between , before , next , for a start , afterward , finally , for one thing for another, in the first place,first of all ,to begin with , meanwhile ,until , subsequently , previously , then.

  第四类 表强调或解释

  that is , in particular , I mean , namely , especially ,actually , in other words, that is to say , specially, another way of saying.

  第五类 表因果关系

  As a result ,therefore , so ,for , since , for this reason ,because consequently , thus ,due to ,owing to ,contribute to, as a result ,result from.

  第六类 表归纳关系

  As a result ,altogether , finally ,in short , therefore ,overall , in sum thus, on the whole , in brief ,to conclude, in a word, consequently ,to sum up ,to summarize ,in conclusion.