The tables below give information about sales of Fairtrade*-labelled coffee and bananas in 1999 and 2004 in five European countries.
The tables show the amount of money spent on Fairtrade coffee and bananas in two separate years in the UK, Switzerland, Denmark, Belgium and Sweden.
It is clear that sales of Fairtrade coffee rose in all five European countries from 1999 to 2004, but sales of Fairtrade bananas only went up in three out of the five countries. Overall, the UK saw by far the highest levels of spending on the two products.
In 1999, Switzerland had the highest sales of Fairtrade coffee, at €3 million, while revenue from Fairtrade bananas was highest in the UK, at €15 million. By 2004, however, sales of Fairtrade coffee in the UK had risen to €20 million, and this was over three times higher than Switzerland’s sales figure for Fairtrade coffee in that year. The year 2004 also saw dramatic increases in the money spent on Fairtrade bananas in the UK and Switzerland, with revenues rising by €32 million and €4.5 million respectively.
Sales of the two Fairtrade products were far lower in Denmark, Belgium and Sweden. Small increases in sales of Fairtrade coffee can be seen, but revenue remained at €2 million or below in all three countries in both years. Finally, it is noticeable that the money spent on Fairtrade bananas actually fell in Belgium and Sweden.
The chart below shows the total number of minutes (in billions) of telephone calls in the UK, divided into three categories, from 1995-2002.
The bar chart compares the amount of time spent by people in the UK on three different types of phone call between 1995 and 2002.
It is clear that calls made via local, fixed lines were the most popular type, in terms of overall usage, throughout the period shown. The lowest figures on the chart were for mobile calls, but this category also saw the most dramatic increase in user minutes.
In 1995, people in the UK used fixed lines for a total of just over 70 billion minutes for local calls, and about half of that amount of time for national or international calls. By contrast, mobile phones were only used for around 4 billion minutes. Over the following four years, the figures for all three types of phone call increased steadily.
By 1999, the amount of time spent on local calls using landlines had reached a peak at 90 billion minutes. Subsequently, the figure for this category fell, but the rise in the other two types of phone call continued. In 2002, the number of minutes of national / international landline calls passed 60 billion, while the figure for mobiles rose to around 45 billion minutes.
The two pictures show the layout change of a park between 1980 and now.
The two pictures illustrate the layout of a particular city from 1965 to 2015 and its proposed changes in 2018.
These two maps clearly summarize the changes taken place at a college campus across those two years 1925 and 2010.
The maps illustrate the changes in the layout of a conference center from present to future.
It is noticeable that the urban area has change d considerably in terms of an increase of the local population and a decline of the woodland coverage. Also, a number of transport infrastructures have been and are planned to be built by the end of the period.
In conclusion, after a series of changes, the functions would be more diversified.
In conclusion, the function of the conference center is strengthened with the change of the layout.
1. There be
In 1980, there was a West-to-South main road in the park.
2. Be located/situated
Also, a small pond was located between main road and the west of the park, circled by three benches.
In 1925, a sports ground was situated in the northwest corner of the campus half surrounded by a road to its west.
3. With 伴随
There is a river Tam that crosses the city from north to south, with a tributary joining into the mainstream from the west.
Situated on the east side of the river Tam, a few houses ashore actually occupied only one fourth of the land.
One connected the car park located in the northeast and the other bridge d a cafe and a music center, to the south of which was a lecture room.
There was no change about the road ,the lecture room and the music center
The garden and car park remain at the same location with a minor alteration in size.
At first, the main road is extended to north and east.
The previous park was demolished/knocked down/pulled down.
Besides, some new picnic chairs and desks are built among the trees for people to enjoy the barbecue.
A new bridge has been added to the upper reaches of the river, and another foot bridge to the south.
Then, the flowers in the southwest are replaced by bush and the flower bed in the southeast is substituted by a playground.
The diagrams show West Park School at three different stages in its development:1950, 1980 and 2010.
During this period, the school had increased in size and a car park had been created and enlarge d. The combined recreational areas, however, first expanded and were then reduced in size.
In 1950, the school was built close to a main road and next to a number of houses. A large area behind the school was turned into a playground, while the area behind the houses was farmland.
By 1980, the houses had been demolished in order to make way for a small car park and an additional school building, which became the science block. In addition to the existing playground, the school also gained the farmland and converted it into a sports field.
In 2010, the school building remained unchange d but the car park was extended to cover the entire sports field. As a result of this, the original playground was divided into two so that it provided a smaller playground and a small sports field.
The three pie charts below show the changes in annual spending by a particular UK school in 1981, 1991 and 2001.
The pie charts compare the expenditure of a school in the UK in three different years over a 20-year period.
It is clear that teachers’ salaries made up the largest proportion of the school’s spending in all three years (1981, 1991 and 2001). By contrast, insurance was the smallest cost in each year.
In 1981, 40% of the school’s budget went on teachers’ salaries. This figure rose to 50% in 1991, but fell again by 5% in 2001. The proportion of spending on other workers’ wages fell steadily over the 20-year period, from 28% of the budget in 1981 to only 15% in 2001.
Expenditure on insurance stood at only 2% of the total in 1981, but reached 8% in 2001. Finally, the percentages for resources and furniture/equipment fluctuated. The figure for resources was highest in 1991, at 20%, and the proportion of spending on furniture and equipment reached its peak in 2001, at 23
The graph below shows the amounts of waste produced by three companies over a period of 15 years.
The graph below shows the amounts of waste produced by three companies over a period of 15 years.
The line graph compares three companies in terms of their waste output between the years 2000 and 2015.
It is clear that there were significant changes in the amounts of waste produced by all three companies shown on the graph. While companies A and B saw waste output fall over the 15-year period, the amount of waste produced by company C increased considerably.
In 2000, company A produced 12 tonnes of waste, while companies B and C produced around 8 tonnes and 4 tonnes of waste material respectively. Over the following 5 years, the waste output of companies B and C rose by around 2 tonnes, but the figure for company A fell by approximately 1 tonne.
From 2005 to 2015, company A cut waste production by roughly 3 tonnes, and company B reduced its waste by around 7 tonnes. By contrast, company C saw an increase in waste production of approximately 4 tonnes over the same 10-year period. By 2015, company C’s waste output had risen to 10 tonnes, while the respective amounts of waste from companies A and B had dropped to 8 tonnes and only 3 tonnes.
The charts below show the results of a questionnaire that asked visitors to the Parkway Hotel how they rated the hotel's customer service. The same questionnaire was given to 100 guests in the years 2005 and 2010.
The pie charts compare visitors’ responses to a survey about customer service at the Parkway Hotel in 2005 and in 2010.
It is clear that overall customer satisfaction increased considerably from 2005 to 2010. While most hotel guests rated customer service as satisfactory or poor in 2005, a clear majority described the hotel’s service as good or excellent in 2010.
Looking at the positive responses first, in 2005 only 5% of the hotel’s visitors rated its customer service as excellent, but this figure rose to 28% in 2010. Furthermore, while only 14% of guests described customer service in the hotel as good in 2005, almost three times as many people gave this rating five years later.
With regard to negative feedback, the proportion of guests who considered the hotel’s customer service to be poor fell from 21% in 2005 to only 12% in 2010. Similarly, the proportion of people who thought customer service was very poor dropped from 15% to only 4% over the 5-year period. Finally, a fall in the number of ‘satisfactory’ ratings in 2010 reflects the fact that more people gave positive responses to the survey in that year.
More and more people are migrating to cities in search of a better life, but city life can be extremely difficult. Explain some of the difficulties of living in a city. How can governments make urban life better for everyone?
Cities are often seen as places of opportunity, but there are also some major drawbacks of living in a large metropolis. In my opinion, governments could do much more to improve city life for the average inhabitant.
The main problem for anyone who hopes to migrate to a large city is that the cost of living is likely to be much higher than it is in a small town or village. Inhabitants of cities have to pay higher prices for housing, transport, and even food. Another issue is that urban areas tend to suffer from social problems such as high crime and poverty rates in comparison with rural areas. Furthermore, the air quality in cities is often poor, due to pollution from traffic, and the streets and public transport systems are usually overcrowded. As a result, city life can be unhealthy and stressful.
However, there are various steps that governments could take to tackle these problems. Firstly, they could invest money in the building of affordable or social housing to reduce the cost of living. Secondly, politicians have the power to ban vehicles from city centres and promote the use of cleaner public transport, which would help to reduce both air pollution and traffic congestion. In London, for example, the introduction of a congestion charge for drivers has helped to curb the traffic problem. A third option would be to develop provincial towns and rural areas, by moving industry and jobs to those regions, in order to reduce the pressure on major cities.
In conclusion, governments could certainly implement a range of measures to enhance the quality of life for all city residents.
Nowadays celebrities are more famous for their glamour and wealth than for their achievements, and this sets a bad example to young people.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
It is true that some celebrities are known for their glamorous lifestyles rather than for the work they do. While I agree that these celebrities set a bad example for children, I believe that other famous people act as positive role models.
On the one hand, many people do achieve fame without really working for it. They may have inherited money from parents, married a famous or wealthy person, or they may have appeared in gossip magazines or on a reality TV programme. A good example would be Paris Hilton, who is rich and famous for the wrong reasons. She spends her time attending parties and nightclubs, and her behaviour promotes the idea that appearance, glamour and media profile are more important than hard work and good character. The message to young people is that success can be achieved easily, and that school work is not necessary.
On the other hand, there are at least as many celebrities whose accomplishments make them excellent role models for young people. Actors, musicians and sports stars become famous idols because they have worked hard and applied themselves to develop real skills and abilities. They demonstrate great effort, determination and ambition, which is required for someone who wants to be truly successful in their chosen field. An example is the actor and martial artist Jackie Chan, who has become world famous through years of practice and hard work. This kind of self-made celebrity can inspire children to develop their talents through application and perseverance.
In conclusion, it seems to me that the influence of celebrities on young people can be positive as well as negative.
Some people think that all university students should study whatever they like. Others believe that they should only be allowed to study subjects that will be useful in the future, such as those related to science and technology.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
People have different views about how much choice students should have with regard to what they can study at university. While some argue that it would be better for students to be forced into certain key subject areas, I believe that everyone should be able to study the course of their choice.
There are various reasons why people believe that universities should only offer subjects that will be useful in the future. They may assert that university courses like medicine, engineering and information technology are more likely to be beneficial than certain art degrees. From a personal perspective, it can be argued that these courses provide more job opportunities, career progression, better salaries, and therefore an improved quality of life for students who take them. On the societal level, by forcing people to choose particular university subjects, governments can ensure that any knowledge and skill gaps in the economy are covered. Finally, a focus on technology in higher education could lead to new inventions, economic growth, and greater future prosperity.
In spite of these arguments, I believe that university students should be free to choose their preferred areas of study. In my opinion, society will benefit more if our students are passionate about what they are learning. Besides, nobody can really predict which areas of knowledge will be most useful to society in the future, and it may be that employers begin to value creative thinking skills above practical or technical skills. If this were the case, perhaps we would need more students of art, history and philosophy than of science or technology.
In conclusion, although it might seem sensible for universities to focus only on the most useful subjects, I personally prefer the current system in which people have the right to study whatever they like.
In many countries, a small number of people earn extremely high salaries. Some people believe that this is good for the country, but others think that governments should not allow salaries above a certain level.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
People have different views about whether governments should introduce a maximum wage. While in some ways it may seem reasonable to allow people to earn as much as companies are willing to pay, I personally believe that employee remuneration should be capped at a certain level.
There are various reasons why it might be considered beneficial to allow people to be paid extremely high salaries. If companies offer excellent pay packages, they can attract the most talented people in their fields to work for them. For example, technology companies like Google are able to employ the best programmers because of the huge sums that they are willing to pay. Furthermore, these well-paid employees are likely to be highly motivated to work hard and therefore drive their businesses successfully. In theory, this should result in a thriving economy and increased tax revenues, which means that paying high salaries benefits everyone.
However, I agree with those who argue that there should be a maximum wage. By introducing a limit on earnings, the pay-gap between bosses and employees can be reduced. Currently, the difference between normal and top salaries is huge, and this can demotivate workers who feel that the situation is unfair. With lower executive salaries, it might become feasible to introduce higher minimum wages, and everybody would be better off. One possible consequence of greater equality could be that poverty and crime rates fall because the general population will experience an improved standard of living.
In conclusion, it seems to me that it would be better, on balance, for governments to set a limit on the wages of the highest earners in society.
Some people regard video games as harmless fun, or even as a useful educational tool. Others, however, believe that videos games are having an adverse effect on the people who play them. In your opinion, do the drawbacks of video games outweigh the benefits?
Many people, and children in particular, enjoy playing computer games. While I accept that these games can sometimes have a positive effect on the user, I believe that they are more likely to have a harmful impact.
On the one hand, video games can be both entertaining and educational. Users, or gamers, are transported into virtual worlds which are often more exciting and engaging than real-life pastimes. From an educational perspective, these games encourage imagination and creativity, as well as concentration, logical thinking and problem solving, all of which are useful skills outside the gaming context. Furthermore, it has been shown that computer simulation games can improve users’ motor skills and help to prepare them for real-world tasks, such as flying a plane.
However, I would argue that these benefits are outweighed by the drawbacks. Gaming can be highly addictive because users are constantly given scores, new targets and frequent rewards to keep them playing. Many children now spend hours each day trying to progress through the levels of a game or to get a higher score than their friends. This type of addiction can have effects ranging from lack of sleep to problems at school, when homework is sacrificed for a few more hours on the computer or console. The rise in obesity in recent years has also been linked in part to the sedentary lifestyle and lack of exercise that often accompany gaming addiction.
In conclusion, it seems to me that the potential dangers of video games are more significant than the possible benefits.
We cannot help everyone in the world that needs help, so we should only be concerned with our own communities and countries.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Some people believe that we should not help people in other countries as long as there are problems in our own society. I disagree with this view because I believe that we should try to help as many people as possible.
On the one hand, I accept that it is important to help our neighbours and fellow citizens. In most communities there are people who are impoverished or disadvantage d in some way. It is possible to find homeless people, for example, in even the wealthiest of cities, and for those who are concerned about this problem, there are usually opportunities to volunteer time or give money to support these people. In the UK, people can help in a variety of ways, from donating clothing to serving free food in a soup kitchen. As the problems are on our doorstep, and there are obvious ways to help, I can understand why some people feel that we should prioritise local charity.
At the same time, I believe that we have an obligation to help those who live beyond our national borders. In some countries the problems that people face are much more serious than those in our own communities, and it is often even easier to help. For example, when children are dying from curable diseases in African countries, governments and individuals in richer countries can save lives simply by paying for vaccines that already exist. A small donation to an international charity might have a much greater impact than helping in our local area.
In conclusion, it is true that we cannot help everyone, but in my opinion national boundaries should not stop us from helping those who are in need.
1. The only way to improve the safety on our roads is to give much stricter punishment to driving offences. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
2. Some people think young people are not suitable for important positions in the government，while other people think it is a good idea for young people to take these positions. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
3. Nowadays, many people do not feel safe either when they are at home or go out. What are the reasons and what can be done to solve this problem?
4. People believe that they should be able to keep all the money they earn and should not pay tax to the state. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people believe that the best way to build a happier society is to ensure that there are only small differences between the richest and the poorest members. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
1. Some people think that advertising discourages us from being different individuals, as all people want to do the same and look the same. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
2. Nowadays there is a trend that reports of media focus on problems and emergencies rather than positive developments. Some people think it is harmful to individuals and to the society. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
3. Films and computer games containing violence are popular. Some people say they have negative effect on society and should be banned. Others say they are just harmless relaxation. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
4. More and more people want to buy famous brands of clothes, cars and other items. What are the reasons? Do you think it is a positive or negative development?
1. Some people think that all young people should be required to have full-time education until they are at least 18 years old. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
2. Some working parents believe childcare centers can provide best care for children, while others think family members like grandparents can do it better. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
3. Some people think that children should obey the rules as parents and teachers want them to do. Others think that less control will help children deal with adult life. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
4. Some people think that only the best students should be rewarded. Others, however, think that it is more important to reward students who show improvements. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
5. Some people think secondary school students should learn international news as one of their subjects, while others believe that this is a waste of valuable time. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
6. Some people believe that everyone has the right to receive university education, so the government should make it free to all people regardless of their financial background. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
1. Some people believe that when designing a building, the most important thing to be considered is the function rather than the appearance. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
2. Some people think that the government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
1. It is said that very soon computers will become more intelligent than human beings. Some people think it is a positive development, while others think it is a negative development. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
2. With the increasing use of mobile phones and computers, people are no longer writing letters now. Some people think the traditional skill of writing letters will disappear. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
3. Public museums are no longer important, as people can see historical objects and artworks on virtual museums. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
1. In a global economy, many goods, including what we use on a daily basis, are transported from other counties in a long distance. Do its benefits outweigh its drawbacks?