雅思阅读能力的培养和我们平时的练习是息息相关的,有效的练习可以帮助我们提升阅读水平。今天小编为大家准备的是雅思阅读The History of Tea文章,大家可以通过适合自己的练习方法,积累文章的词句以及背景知识。

  A

  The story of tea began in ancient China over 5,000 years ago. According to legend, Shen Nung, an early emperor was a skilled ruler, creative scientist and patron of the arts. His far-sighted edicts required, among other things, that all drinking water be boiled as a hygienic precaution. One summer day while visiting a distant region of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. In accordance with his ruling, the servants began to boil water for the court to drink. Dried leaves from the nearby bush fell into the boiling water, and a brown liquid was infused into the water. As a scientist, the Emperor was interested in the new liquid, drank some, and found it very refreshing. And so, according to legend, tea was created.

  B

  Tea consumption spread throughout the Chinese culture reaching into every aspect of the society. In 800 A.D. Lu Yu wrote the first definitive book on tea, the Ch'a Ching. This amazing man was orphaned as a child and raised by scholarly Buddhist monks in one of China's finest monasteries. Patronized by the Emperor himself, his work clearly showed the Zen Buddhist philosophy to which he was exposed as a child. It was this form of tea service that Zen Buddhist missionaries would later introduce to imperial Japan. The first tea seeds were brought to Japan by the returning Buddhist priest Yeisei, who had seen the value of tea in China in enhancing religious mediation. As a result, he is known as the "Father of Tea" in Japan. Because of this early association, tea in Japan has always been associated with Zen Buddhism. Tea received almost instant imperial sponsorship and spread rapidly from the royal court and monasteries to the other sections of Japanese society.

  C

  Tea was elevated to an art form resulting in the creation of the Japanese Tea Ceremony ("Cha-no-yu" or "the hot water for tea"). The best description of this complex art form was probably written by the Irish-Greek journalist-historian Lafcadio Hearn, one of the few foreigners ever to be granted Japanese citizenship during this era. He wrote from personal observation, "The Tea ceremony requires years of training and practice to graduate in art...yet the whole of this art, as to its detail, signifies no more than the making and serving of a cup of tea. The supremely important matter is that the act be performed in the most perfect, most polite, most graceful, most charming manner possible”.Such a purity of form, of expression prompted the creation of supportive arts and services. A special form of architecture (chaseki) developed for "tea houses", based on the duplication of the simplicity of a forest cottage. The cultural/artistic hostesses of Japan, the Geishi, began to specialize in the presentation of the tea ceremony. As more and more people became involved in the excitement surrounding tea, the purity of the original Zen concept was lost. The tea ceremony became corrupted, boisterous and highly embellished. "Tea Tournaments" were held among the wealthy where nobles competed among each other for rich prizes in naming various tea blends. Rewarding winners with gifts of silk, armor, and jewelry was totally alien to the original Zen attitude of the ceremony.Three great Zen priests restored tea to its original place in Japanese society. One of them is Sen-no Rikkyu (1521-1591)-priest who set the rigid standards for the ceremony, largely used intact today. Rikyo was successful in influencing the Shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who became Japan's greatest patron of the "art of tea". A brilliant general, strategist, poet, and artist this unique leader facilitated the final and complete integration of tea into the pattern of Japanese life. So complete was this acceptance, that tea was viewed as the ultimate gift, and warlords paused for tea before battles.

  D

  While tea was at this high level of development in both Japan and China, information concerning this then unknown beverage began to filter back to Europe. Earlier caravan leaders had mentioned it, but were unclear as to its service format or appearance. (One reference suggests the leaves be boiled, salted, buttered, and eaten!) The first European to personally encounter tea and write about it was the Portuguese Jesuit Father Jasper de Cruz in 1560. Portugal, with her technologically advanced navy, had been successful in gaining the first right of trade with China. It was as a missionary on that first commercial mission that Father de Cruz had tasted tea four years before.The Portuguese developed a trade route by which they shipped their tea to Lisbon, and then Dutch ships transported it to France, Holland, and the Baltic countries. (At that time Holland was politically affiliated with Portugal. When this alliance was altered in 1602, Holland, with her excellent navy, entered into full Pacific trade in her own right.)

  E

  Because of the success of the Dutch navy in the Pacific, tea became very fashionable in the Dutch capital, the Hague. This was due in part to the high cost of the tea (over $100 per pound) which immediately made it the domain of the wealthy.

  F

  Slowly, as the amount of tea imported increased, the price fell as the volume of sale expanded. initially available to the public in apothecaries along with such rare and new spices as ginger and sugar, by 1675 it was available in common food shops throughout Holland. As the consumption of tea increased dramatically in Dutch society, doctors and university authorities argued back and forth as to the negative and/or positive benefits of tea. Known as "tea heretics", the public largely ignored the scholarly debate and continued to enjoy their new beverage though the controversy lasted from 1635 to roughly 1657. Throughout this period France and Holland led Europe in the use of tea.

  G

  As the craze for things oriental swept Europe, tea became part of the way of life. The social critic Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, the Marquise de Seven makes the first mention in 1680 of adding milk to tea. During the same period, Dutch inns provided the first restaurant service of tea. Tavern owners would furnish guests with a portable tea set complete with a heating unit. The independent Dutchman would then prepare tea for himself and his friends outside in the tavern's garden. Tea remained popular in France for only about fifty years, being replaced by a stronger preference for wine, chocolate, and exotic coffees.Great Britain was the last of the three great sea-faring nations to break into the Chinese and East Indian trade routes. This was due in part to the unsteady ascension to the throne of the Stuarts and the Cromwellian Civil War. The first samples of tea reached England between 1652 and 1654. Tea quickly proved popular enough to replace ale as the national drink of England.As in Holland, it was the nobility that provided the necessary stamp of approval and so insured its acceptance. King Charles II had married, while in exile, the Portuguese Infanta Catherine de Braganza (1662). Charles himself had grown up in the Dutch capital. As a result, both he and his Portuguese bride were confirmed tea drinkers. When the monarchy was re-established, the two rulers brought this foreign tea tradition to England with them.

  H

  Imperial Russia was attempting to engage China and Japan in trade at the same time as the East Indian Company. The Russian interest in tea began as early as 1618 when the Chinese embassy in Moscow presented several chests of tea to Czar Alexis. By 1689 the Trade Treaty of Newchinsk established a common border between Russia and China, allowing caravans to then cross back and forth freely. Still, the journey was not easy. The trip was 11,000 miles long and took over sixteen months to complete. The average caravan consisted of 200 to 300 camels. As a result of such factors, the cost of tea was initially prohibitive and available only to the wealthy. By the time Catherine the Great died (1796), the price had dropped some, and tea was spreading throughout Russian society.

  Questions 1-8

  Reading passage 1 has eight paragraphs, A-H

  Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-H from the list of headings below.

  Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.

  List of Headings

  i Good or bad of tea

  ii Tea ritual

  iii Difficulties of import

  iv Religious objection of tea

  v A chance discovery

  vi In and out of fashion

  vii A luxury thing

  viii A connection between tea and religion

  ix Shortage of supply

  x News of tea going to new continent

  1 Paragraph A

  2 Paragraph B

  3 Paragraph C

  4 Paragraph D

  5 Paragraph E

  6 Paragraph F

  7 Paragraph G

  8 Paragraph H

  Questions 9-13

  Use the information in the passage to match the country (listed A-G) with statements below. Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.

  A France

  B Holland

  C Japan

  D China

  E Britain

  F Russia

  G Portugal

  9 house designed particularly for tea drinking

  10 tea being substituted after a short period

  11 using animals for tea transportation

  12 popularity of tea despite of some dispute

  13 favor of tea for ruler's specialised knowledge

  文章题目:The History of Tea 茶叶的历史

  篇章结构

  体裁论说文

  题目茶叶的历史

  结构A段:传说中茶的偶然发现

  B段:茶与宗教的联系

  C段:茶道的兴起

  D段:茶的信息被传播到其他国家

  E段:茶叶成为奢侈品

  F段:茶叶产生正面及负面影响

  G段:茶的流行趋势

  H段:茶叶运输艰难

  A茶叶的历史追溯到5000多年前的古代中国。报据传说,早期皇帝神农氏,是娴熟的统治者,创造性的科学家和艺术的守护者。此外,他高瞻远瞩的法令规定了一项卫生预防措施,即饮用水需要煮沸。夏季的一天,他访问一个边远地区,他和朝臣停下来休息,按照规定,仆人开始烧水给朝臣喝。正在此时,千枯的叶子从附近的灌木丛飘落到水中,水变为褐色。身为科学家的皇帝对这种新的液体产生了兴趣,他尝了一些,觉得精神焕发。因此,根据传说,茶就应运而生了。

  B饮茶传遍了中国的文化,渗透到社会的各个方面。公元800年,鲁豫写了第一本关于茶的著作,Ch’s Ching。这位奇人,在孩童时期,便是孤儿,被中国最好的一所寺院的学术佛教的僧人收养。因受皇帝惠顾,他的作品清晰地阐明了孩童时期接触到的禅宗佛教哲学。禅宗佛教传教士后来将这种形式的茶饮服务传播到日本帝国。

  第一批茶种是由归国僧人Yeisei带到日本,他看到了茶在中国提高宗教调解的价值。因此,他被日本人称为 “茶之父” 。因为这种早期的协会,在日本,茶与禅宗相关联。茶瞬间受到帝国赞助者的青睐,从宫廷和寺院蔓延到日本社会的各个阶层。

  C茶上升为艺术形式,因此促进了日本茶道的兴起(“cha-no-yu”or “the hot water for tea”)对于这个复杂的艺术形式,最好的描述出自由爱尔兰-希腊史学记者Lafcadio Hearn, 他是这个时代少数外国人中被授予日本公民权的人。他的作品源于亲身观察,“茶道需要多年的训练和实践才能成为艺术……但艺术的整休,就细节而言,无非是沏茶和上茶服务。茶道中最为重要的是以最完美,最优雅,最陶醉的方式呈现出来。

  如此纯洁的形式,如此纯粹的表达,造就了艺术和服务。一种特殊建筑形式(chaseki)因“茶馆”而兴起,它的原型是基于一个朴素的森林小屋。日本文化/艺术类主持人Geishi,开始专攻茶道报告,随着越来越多的人对茶艺感兴趣,原本禅宗纯粹的观念消失了。茶道开始变得腐败、充满喧嚣且被高度渲染。“茶艺锦标赛”在富人中举行,以命名各种茶混合物,贵族之间为丰厚的奖品相互竞争。赢者能够获得丝绸、盔甲、珠宝礼品作为奖励,这与禅宗茶道的初始真谛背道而驰。

  三大禅师将茶回归到日本社会初始地位。其中一个是牧师Sen-no rikkyu(1521-1591)-规定了茶道严格的标准,至今还完整延续。Rikyo成功影响将军丰臣秀吉,他是日本最大的茶艺赞助人。一个优秀的将领,军事家,诗人,艺术家,这位独特的领导者促使茶完全渗透入日本人生活中。接受得如此透彻,以至于茶被视为至高的礼物,军阀也因茶而战前停战。

  D在中国和日本,茶都有很高的造诣,关于这种未知饮料的信息开始传到欧洲。早期的旅行队的领导人曾提到它,但对它的服务形式或外观却不得而知。(一种参考建议是叶子需要在沸水中煮,加盐,涂上黄油以调味后方能吃)1950年,葡萄牙耶稣会神父de Cruz成为欧洲第一位亲自品茶并将此记录下来的人。 由于技术先进的海军,葡萄牙成功获得与中国的贸易优先权。四年前,在那首次商业任务中作为传教士的Father de Cruz已品过茶。

  葡萄牙发展了贸易路线,这样他们能够将茶叶运到里斯本,然后由荷兰船只运到法国、荷兰以及波罗的海的各个国家。(当时荷兰在政治上与葡萄牙交往。1602年,这个联盟发生了改变,荷兰带着她优秀的海军,进入太平洋自主贸易)

  E由于荷兰军队在人平洋贸易中取得成功,茶叶在荷兰首都海牙茶很风靡。这部分原因是茶的成本高(超过每磅100美元),这使得海牙很快成为富人的领域。

  F随着茶叶进口量增加,茶叶价格也随着销售量的增长而逐渐下跌,最初人们能在药店买到茶叶,如同生姜和糖一样,是罕见的新品种,到1675,整个荷兰的在普通食品店都可以买到。在荷兰社会,茶叶消费急剧增加,医生和人学权威机构对茶叶的负面或正面影响争执不。尽管这种辩论从1635大约持续1657,被称为“茶异教徒"的人,在很大程度上忽视了学术辩论,而继续享受他们的新饮品,在这个时期,法国和荷兰成为欧洲茶叶应用的先驱。

  G东方人对物品的狂热席卷欧洲,茶成为他们生活的一部分。社会评论家Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise de Seven 在1680年首次将牛奶加入茶中。在同一时期,荷兰旅馆推出了第一家提供茶服务的餐馆。旅店老板会提供给客人具有加热功能的便携式茶具,独立的荷兰人会在旅馆花园里为自己和朋友准备茶饮。饮茶在法国流行只有50年,由于对酒,巧克力、异国情调的咖啡的强烈偏好,随后便将茶取而代之。

  三大航海国之一的英国是最后闯入中国和东印度贸易路线,这部分是由于不稳固的斯图亚特王位以及克伦威尔的内战。茶叶样品首次到达英格兰是在1652和1654之间,茶叶很快受到青睐,足以取代英国国家国酒麦芽酒。

  在荷兰,正是贵族阶级提供必要盖章批准,才使得他有了为人们所接受的保障。在流放期间,国王查尔斯二世与葡萄牙的凯瑟琳公主布拉丁萨德(1662)结婚。查尔斯本人曾在荷兰首都长大。因此,他和他的葡萄牙新娘都是饮茶者。当君主制被重新确立,这两个统治者将外国茶传统带到了英国。

  H在与东印度公司贸易的同时,俄罗斯帝国试图参与中日贸易。早在1618年前,俄罗斯开始对茶饮感兴趣,中国驻莫斯科大使馆赠送了几箱茶叶给Czar Alexis。 1689 Newchins贸易条约确定了俄罗斯和中国的共同的边境,允许旅行队来回自由行使。然而,旅程不易,这段行程长11000英里,需要花费十六个月。平均由200到300只骆驼商队。因此,茶叶的成本髙的让人望而却步,只有富豪才能享用。当凯瑟琳大帝死后(1796)茶叶价格下降了一些,茶叶便传播到俄罗斯社会。

  以上是小编为大家分享的“雅思阅读The History of Tea文章积累”的全部内容,希望可以为大家备考雅思带来一些帮助,更多精彩内容敬请关注智课网!


展开显示全文